Vol 2, No 2 (Spring 2016)


Original Article(s)

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    Background: As the global elderly population increases,the prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures are becoming a major social and medical concern in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine association dietary pattern and bone health in postmenopausal women.
    Materials and Methods: In this study, 254 postmenopausal women aged 46 to 78 years were examined. Body composition measured by Body Composition Analyzer Physical activity using the short form of physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was performed Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA method. Major dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis on 27 foods groups using a valid and reliable, 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)  The major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis (PCA) method.
    Results: Three dietary patterns including The Mediterranean diet, Traditional and unhealthy were identified. These three dietary patterns explained 30.45 % of total variance in dietary intakes.  Our results showed that higher adherence score to a " Mediterranean " dietary pattern was positively associated with Zscore L2_L4 lumbar  spine (0.05> P). Furthermore, logistic regression results showed that Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces the risk of osteopenia/ osteoporosis (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.58 -0.96). However, Traditional (OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.76 -1.24) and Unhealthy (OR = 1.19, 95%CI: 0.93 -1.52) dietary patterns were no  association with risk of osteopenia/ osteoporosis
    Conclusion: It seems Mediterranean dietary pattern, has a protective association against the risk of osteopenia/ osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

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    Background: lack of breastfeeding initiation in the first hours after birth is an influencing factor in the incidence of jaundice, and breastfeeding problems in the first week of birth are common. Given the effectiveness of oral carbohydrate before the cesarean section on maternal breastfeeding in the first days of birth, this study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of oral carbohydrate on the incidence of neonatal jaundice.
    Methods:  In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, a total of 91 women scheduled for elective cesarean surgery were randomly divided into intervention (oral carbohydrate before surgery, N=45) and placebo (flavored water before surgery, N=46) groups. The intervention group received 400 + 800 ml of a carbohydrate solution before surgery. Until the end of the first week of birth, subjects were followed-up for neonatal jaundice incidence through the information contained in the medical records.
    Results: In the intervention group, 6 infants developed jaundice.  All these cases were infants with blood group of A or B from mothers with blood group of O. In contrast, in the placebo group, 25 infants developed jaundice, of them, 5 cases were infants with blood group of A or B from mothers with blood group of O. The number of infants with jaundice was significantly lower in the group receiving oral carbohydrate than in the group receiving placebo (n = 25 (54.3%) VS. n = 6 (13.3%), P  0.001).
    Conclusion: Regardless of the type of blood group, pre-cesarean oral carbohydrate intake was observed to reduce the incidence of neonatal jaundice. These findings suggest that carbohydrate could be used as a preventive dietary supplement against neonatal jaundice, which occurs due to the lack of breastfeeding. However, further clinical trials are warranted to confirm our results and to investigate the role of other influencing factors on jaundice such as G6PD deficiency status.


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    Background: This study attempted to investigate acute effect of strenuous physical activity with and without Crocus Sativus supplementation on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNFα in male mountain climbers.
    Methods: A 10-day, single-blinded semi experimental design was adopted. Eleven male climbers with an age range of 27-37 years old ran at one session strenuous physical activity with intensity 80-90% of maximum heart rate for 45 minutes on a -5% slope surface. Blood samples were collected from subjects before, immediately and one hour after the strenuous physical activity to measure HSP70, IL-6 and TNFα. 3 days after recovery, the subjects were given 300 mg of dried stigmas of Crocus Sativus in capsules once a day for ten days. Subsequently, blood samples were obtained from the subjects again before, immediately and one hour after strenuous physical activity. The changing trends in the variables were evaluated through analysis of variance with repeated measures at a significance level 0.05.
    Results: One session strenuous physical activity with Crocus Sativus supplementation compared with only strenuous physical activity had a significant effect on the level of heat shock protein 70 680.25±127.86 (ng/ml) vs 528.18±111.63 (ng/ml) at the immediately after of strenuous physical activity (p<0.05).strenuous physical activity with Crocus Sativus supplementation compared with only strenuous physical activity had no significant effect on the level of IL-6 and TNFα at the before, immediately and one hour after strenuous physical activity (p>0.05).
    Conclusion: Crocus Sativus intake ten days before a session of strenuous physical activity can decrease the effect of heat shock protein 70 immediately after strenuous physical activity.

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    Background: Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that is a main precursor of Arginine and therefore could be a best alternative for arginine supplementation. The current study aimed to assess the effects of Arginine and Citrulline administration on inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein (CRP), interlukine-6 (IL-6)) in critically ill trauma patients.
    Method: A total of 102 patients in 5 traumas intensive care units (ICU) were divided into three groups: Arginine, Citrulline and Control. Patients received 10 g/d Arginine powder (Arginine Group) or 10 g/d Citrulline powder (Citrulline Group) for 10 days. Serum level of CRP, IL-6 were determined in all patients before (day 0) and after intervention (day 11) and their correlation with APACHE II as an indicator of severity of disease were assessed.
    Results: There were significant reduction in IL6 levels only in Citrulline group (P=0.009). Moreover, serum levels of CRP decreased in both experimental group but it was elevated during study period in Control group (mean changes in control group were 0.28 ±19.66, in Citrulline group -11.16 ± 22.72 and in arginine group it was -1.12 ± 28.30) which was only significant in Citrulline group (P= 0.025). Results showed that APACHE II score were decreased in all three groups but there were no significant differences between groups after 10 days intervention (P=0.44).  Changes in APACHE II score had significant correlation with IL6 level (r=0.29, P=0.02).
    Conclusion: Citrulline supplementation could have modulatory effects on inflammatory biomarkers.

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    Objective: The possible role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) variants in determining cardiovascular risk factors has been suggested previously. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the associations of variants of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene with metabolic profile in Iranian overweight women with hypovitaminosis D.

    Materials and Methods: Variants in VDR gene including FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410) and rs757343 were detected using PCR-sequencing. Metabolic Profile including fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triacylglycerol was assessed using commercial kits. Circulating 25 (OH) D was measured using ELISA kits. Fat mass and visceral fat were measured using Bio Impedance Analysis.

    Results: A sample of 123 overweight women with hypovitaminosis D (25 (OH) D<75nmol/L) was studied. The mean 25 (OH) D level was 28.7±17.0nmol/L. The FokI polymorphism was significantly associated with total cholesterol (p=0.03) and LDL-C (p=0.01). Carriers of the CC genotype of the FokI polymorphism had lower total cholesterol (162.9±30.4 vs. 176.1±32.4, p=0. 02) and LDL-C (98.0±26.0 vs. 110.6±28.5, p=0. 01) compared with carriers of CT+TT genotype. Regression analysis revealed that the FokI variant and fat mass explained 18% of the variance in total cholesterol. Regarding LDL-C, FokI variant explained 21% of the variance in LDL-C. None of the studied polymorphisms were significantly associated with adiposity phenotypes (p>0.05). Also, adiposity phenotype measures were not significantly different in the genotype groups of the studied SNPs (p>0.5).

    Conclusions: The present results indicate that the FokI polymorphism is significantly associated with total cholesterol and LDL-C in Iranian overweight women with hypovitaminosis D.


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    Background: Some food patterns and lifestyles have beneficial effects on diminution of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) components. Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) because of its contents may have potential protective impacts against the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in elderly people. Our aim was to assess the association between aMED and MetS components in Iranian elderly.
    Method: 226 healthy elderly people (65 men and 161 women) with a mean age of 67.04 years participated in this cross-sectional study in five districts of Tehran, the capital of Iran during the period 20014-20015.  MetS was defined based on the National Chol esterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that included 147 items. The Alternate Mediterranean dietary score was calculated by Fung et al. Method. Logistic and linear regression models were used to derive beta estimates and odds ratios (ORs).
    Results. Subjects in the top tertile of Alternate Mediterranean diet had 56% lower chance of metabolic syndrome compared with subjects in the bottom tertile (OR 0·46; 95% CI 0·23, 0·94; P trend=0.033 ). After adjustment for potential confounders such as age, energy intake, physical activity, marital status, smoking, education, income this association was strengthened (OR 0·34; 95% CI 0·14, 0·82; P trend=0.017).Also  it was observed that people in the highest tertile of the Alternate Mediterranean diet score had 68% lower odds of high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR 0·42; 95% CI 0·20, 0·91; P trend=0.033).
    Conclusion: Our study showed a higher adherence to the alternate Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of the metabolic syndrome in the elderly subjects.


Review Article(s)

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    Retinol (ROH) and  its derivatives named vitamin A are substantial for several cells’ functions. Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) is known as the career for vitamin A in blood. The main receptor for RBP4 is Stimulated by retinoid acid gene 6 (STRA6). RBP4 circulates in bound with Transports Thyroxine and Retinol (TTR) to form ternary ROH-RBP-TTR complex. Recently, RBP4 implicated in insulin resistance which may exerts its functions through inflammatory pathways. Although studies indicated that RBP4 may have role in inflammation as an adipocytokine. the cellular and molecular mechanisms including the interaction between Holo- or Apo-RBP4 and their receptor to induce inflammation is controversial. In this review, we focus on molecular structure of RBP4, STRA6, and their interaction to induce inflammation and insulin resistance to illustrate the potential conflicts in this area.