Vol 1, No 4 (Autumn 2015)
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Iranian Population regarding Fast foods, Soft drinks, Salt and Oil: NUTRI-KAP survey
Background: The aim of this study was to survey Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of fast foods, soft drinks, salt and oil in urban and rural regions in Iran.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Iranian households in both rural and urban areas of 31 provinces of Iran (2011-2012) including 14,136 persons who were responsible for cooking in family were studied. The sampling method was the single-stage cluster sampling with equal size clusters at households in each province. The data was gathered by using a structured questionnaire covering demographic variables, knowledge, attitude and practice about fast foods, soft drinks, salt, and oil by interview with the qualified person.
Results: Households in urban areas had higher correct knowledge level and favorable attitude toward fast foods, soft drinks, salt and oil than households in rural areas. The consumption of sausage, junk food, soft drink and synthetic juice was higher in rural (p<0.05).While, consumption of pizza, sandwich and non-alcoholic beverage was significantly higher among in urban regions (p<0.05). Respectively, solid and liquid oil were consumed frequently in rural and urban (p<0.05). In both of two areas, more than 95% of respondents stated to consume iodized salt (p=0.04).
Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that the nutrition KAP of Iranian population was acceptable. It showed that earlier nutritional educations were effective and helpful.
Effect of Omega-3 PUFA as Supplementation with Lifestyle Modification on Depression and Anxiety in Overweight Women
Background: Anxiety, stress and depression are still one of the common chronic diseases among Iranian population especially among women in the age of 15-29 years. Associations between depressed mood and lifestyle are well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)s supplementation with lifestyle modification on depression and anxiety in overweight women.
Methods: Thirty eight women aged between 20-45 years; body mass index (BMI) equal 25-30; having sedentary lifestyle without any known metabolic, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases or taking any medication which affect heart rate, blood pressure or exercise capacity were included. Patients randomly divided into two experimental groups. Group 1 received omega-3 capsules plus aerobic exercise and nutrition education classes. Group 2 received placebo capsules plus aerobic exercise and nutrition education classes. All of the subjects in group 1were asked to take one capsule/day, for 8 weeks. The depression level was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Results: There were no significant differences between anxiety and educational level, depression and educational level in overweight women at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of the study. In addition, no significant correlation was found between changes observed on anxiety and depression extent and different occupations among volunteer women at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of the study. Omega-3 capsules significantly decreased anxiety and depression compared to control group (P=0.032).
Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation may have beneficial effects onanxiety and depression in overweight women that is not related to lifestylemodification. Further randomized controlled trials with large sample size are needed toconfirm these results
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Modifies Serum HSP 27 in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Double‐Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
Background: Heat shock proteins 27 (HSP-27) can play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Omega-3 fatty acids include anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of the current study is to assess the effect of omega-3 on serum HSP-27 in patient with atherosclerosis.
Methods: In a double‐blind placebo-controlled trial study, 42 patients were selected from Tehran Heart Hospital. Both intervention (n=21) and placebo (n=21) groups were men with cardiovascular disease (based on Angiography). The intervention group received omega-3 supplement and placebo group took edible paraffin. Dietary intakes, physical activity level, anthropometric parameters and body composition, were measured. Serum HSP-27 concentration was determined using ELISA.
Results: After two months, change differences in HSP-27 between two groups was statistically significant (p=0.001). This difference remained significant even after adjusting for serum LDL concentration (p=0.002).
Conclusions: Our results showed that taking omega-3 fatty acids can ameliorate serum HSP-27 as inflammatory parameters. Our results suggest more investigation to assess the pathway omega-3 leads to lower incidence of CVD.
Assessing Serum Concentration of Zinc among Females Aged 18-30 Under Cover of a Relief Foundation in Iran
Objective: Nowadays, zinc deficiency is common among both low- and high-economic level people. Finding the predisposing factors -other that economic situation- seems considerable. Current study investigated the serum concentration of zinc and its correlation with different parameters among disadvantaged female population under cover of a relief foundation in Iran.
Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 1026 females aged 18-30, from all around of Iran were enrolled. Demographic and anthropometric data were registered and venous blood samples were collected. Serum zinc levels were compared in different groups of participants based on age, body mass index, education level and geographic region of their residence. Correlation between serum zinc and iron was investigated as well.
Results: Mean serum zinc was 78.3±13.7 μg/dL. Significant difference was detected between mean serum zinc among different BMI groups (ANOVA, p=0.03), while it was not significant in different education levels and age intervals (ANOVA, p=0.61 and 0.95 respectively). Participants from two western provinces of Iran (Khoozestan and Lorestan) had significantly higher zinc level. There was a positive relationship between serum iron and zinc (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.1, p=0.001).
Conclusions: Findings reveal the important role of socioeconomic and geographic situations and their effect on nutritional status in populations. Other researches focusing on food accessibility, eating behaviors, knowledge level and other reasons that expose poor populations to insufficient nutritional intake are recommended.
Comparison of the effects of canola oil and rice bran oil consumption on oxidative stress and blood pressure in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women:A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Background: It has been reported that vegetable oils may affect the level of oxidativestress and blood pressure. This clinical trial aimed to compare the effects of canola oiland rice bran oil consumption on serum malondialdehyde and blood pressure inpostmenopausal type 2 diabetic women.
Methods: The results showed that reduction of MDA level was significantly higher inRBO (p<0.001) and CO (p<0.05) groups compared to the controls. In addition,reduction in MDA level for RBO group was more than that for CO group (p=0.012).Levels of blood pressure remained unchanged in all groups at the end of the study.
Results: Mean serum zinc was 78.3±13.7 μg/dL. Significant difference was detectedbetween mean serum zinc among different BMI groups (ANOVA, p=0.03), while itwas not significant in different education levels and age intervals (ANOVA, p=0.61and 0.95 respectively). Participants from two western provinces of Iran (Khoozestanand Lorestan) had significantly higher zinc level. There was a positive relationship
between serum iron and zinc (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.1, p=0.001).
Conclusion: Consuming either CO or RBO could decrease the levels of MDA andoxidative stress in diabetic patients, but RBO was more effective than CO. Neither ofthe oils had any significant impact on blood pressure of diabetic women.
Background: Population aging is accompanied by higher prevalence of MetS, which varies depending on the population studied. The objective this study is to determine prevalence of MetS in Iranian elderly.
Methods: 245 of elderly residents in private nursing house in Tehran (90 men and 155 women) were studied. MS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. They were evaluated by clinical examination, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile and anthropometric measurements - weight, height, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS was estimated by NCEP ATP III.
Result: 57.5% showed normal status while 39.2% have MetS. Analysis of logistic regression in two groups, after adjustment for gender, education, marital and vocation status and smoking habit, showed that the risk of MetS in elderly women 2-fold were higher than men (OR: 2.077, CI: 1.198-3.601 and p = 0.009).
Conclusion: Our study indicates that MetS is highly prevalent in the elderly people particularly among women. These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors in elderly population.
A posteriori dietary patterns are related to risk of fracture and low bone mineral density: findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Observational studies suggest that dietary pattern intake plays an important role in the development of fracture and low bone mineral density (BMD). However, the association remains unclear. This systematic review was performed to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and fracture and BMD by pooling available data from existing studies.
Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to January 2015 for eligible observational studies regarding the relationships between common dietary patterns and risk of fracture/ low BMD. Random-effects models were applied to pool the summary estimates for the highest versus the lowest category of dietary pattern. Sensitivity analyses were conducted and publication bias was assessed using Begg or Egger's tests.
Results: A total of thirteen cross-sectional studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was evidence of inverse associations between the Healthy/Prudent dietary pattern and the risk of low BMD (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.21 to 1.30; p =0.007) and a positive association between Unhealthy/Western dietary pattern and low BMD risk (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.90; p<0.001) for the highest versus the lowest category. Moreover, the association between highest compared with lowest categories of intake of the Healthy/Prudent dietary pattern and the risk of fracture showed a significant inverse association (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.73; p< 0.001) which was positive for Unhealthy/Western dietary patterns and fracture risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.26; p<0.001).
Conclusion:There appears to be a beneficial effect of healthy dietary pattern on fracture and low BMD risk and adding a new direction toward prevention of fracture and low BMD level on population level.