Vol 4, No 3 (Summer 2018)
The Effects of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Metabolic Syndrome
Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of aerobic training and resveratrol supplementation on oxidative stress markers in women with metabolic syndrome.
Methods: In a double-blind study, 32 overweight women with metabolic syndrome were randomly categorized into four groups of aerobic exercise, resveratrol supplement, exercise plus the supplement, and control. The exercise protocol was eight weeks long with three 60-min sessions every week. The supplement and placebo dose was 400 mg/day. Serum malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity were measured at the beginning and end of the study.
Results: Eight weeks of aerobic exercise led to a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity in the exercise, exercise plus supplement, and resveratrol supplement groups compared with the control group, with the greatest effect being observed in the exercise plus supplement group.
Conclusion: Using resveratrol along with aerobic exercises can be effective in attenuating oxidative stress. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results.
Interactive Effects of Endurance Training and Crocin on Aerobic Capacity, Dietary Intake and Weight of High-Fat Diet- Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Background: Diabetes and obesity are closely related with each other. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of endurance training and crocin on aerobic capacity, weight and diet in high fat diet and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Methods: In this experimental study, 49 adult diabetic rats (induced by high-fat diet and venous injection of streptozotocin) were randomly assigned to (1) high intensity interval training (HIIT), (2) low intensity continuous training(LICT), (3) HIIT and crocin consumption, (4) LICT and crocin consumption, (5) crocin consumption, (6) sham and (7) control. HIIT and LICT groups exercised on a rodent treadmill for eight weeks, three sessions per week, with an intensity of 80- 85, and 50- 55 percent of maximum speed, respectively, and crocin consumption groups received peritoneally 25 mg/kg of crocin each day for eight weeks. The data were analyzed by independent sample t-test, dependent sample t-test, two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc tests (p≤0.05).
Results: Eight weeks of endurance training had significant effect on weight loss, dietary intake and increased aerobic capacity (p≤0.05). Crocin consumption and endurance training have interactive effects on weight loss (p≤0.05) However, this interaction is not significant in increasing aerobic capacity and dietary intake. (p≥0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that endurance training and crocin consumption have interactive effects on weight loss in high fat diet and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
The Effectiveness of Nutritional Monitoring by Text Message Reminders in Controlling Albumin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients
Background: One of the major problems contributing to hemodialysis failure is patient compliance. The support that can be given as a form of attention to patients can take the shape of continuous nutritional monitoring using a simple, effective, and efficient method, namely short message service (SMS) reminder. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of nutritional monitoring using SMS reminder in controlling albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.
Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-post design with one control group, involving 30 participants recruited through purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were being >18 years of age, willing to be a participant and follow the procedure, having a cell phone and being able to operate it, and being able to read and write. Patients with systemic edema and malignancy complications were excluded. The independent variable was nutritional monitoring by SMS reminder, while the dependent variable was albumin level. An independent t test was used to compare the mean changes in albumin level between the groups.
Results: After the intervention, 100% of the participants in both groups had normal albumin levels. However, the mean change was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the controls (0.87 mg/dL vs 0.57 mg/dL, p = 0.04).
Conclusion: Nutritional monitoring by SMS reminder is effective in managing the albumin level of hemodialysis patients.
Eating Disorders Risk, Depression and Body Dissatisfaction among Iranian Females Participating in Sports
Background: The prevalence of eating disorders among young adults is rapidly increasing. However, a few studies have examined the risk of eating disorders and psychological factors of body dissatisfaction and stress in females of non-Western societies. The current study was designed to assess the correlations between eating disorders risk and body image and depression among Iranian females.
Methods: The participants were 221 females attending sports clubs in Tehran. The 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Photographic Figure Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used. An EAT-26 score of ≥ 20 was considered as eating disorder risk cutoff.
Results: Approximately 50% of the participants were at higher risk of developing eating disorders. Additionally, 62.4% reported a history of overeating, and 43% reported the experience of being unable to control their eating and food intake. Using Spearman correlation analysis, we found significant associations between eating disorders risk and depression, body dissatisfaction, and anthropometric indices. In addition, weight control behaviors were prevalent in subjects, with dieting (43%) and exercise (31.2%) being the most prevalent strategies.
Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of disordered eating. The findings revealed that poor psychological state may increase eating disorders risk. This warrants improving awareness and developing appropriate interventions targeting depression and body image satisfaction among females.
Food Insecurity and Some Associated Socioeconomic Factors Among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tehran: A Case Control Study
Background: Food insecurity is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of enough food for permanent active and healthy life. Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. There is scientific evidence that some dietary strategies and socioeconomic factors may be useful to improve the symptoms of ADHD and benefit the social, cognitive and academic performance of children and adolescents with ADHD. This Study is aimed at determining the association between food insecurity and ADHD in newly diagnosed patients.
Methods: This case-control Study was conducted in Iran in 2017 among 146 patients with ADHD as cases and 146 healthy children as controls, who referred to health and medical centers under the supervision of Tehran universities of medical sciences, while, age, sex and location of living had matched. The general and United States Department of Agriculture household food security questionnaires were completed. A structured questionnaire was used with a wide range of questions for the evaluation of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and the presence of ADHD was diagnosed using the questionnaire of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition.
Results: The food insecurity prevalence was 68.5% and 40.4% in cases and controls, respectively. Food insecurity, low economic level and ethnicity were significantly associated with this disorder (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Food insecurity was one of the important risk factors for Children with ADHD that health care providers should consider it.
Background: Existing data on the association between dietary acid load and blood pressure are not conclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to combine findings of evidence regarding the association between dietary acid load and blood pressure.
Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies published up to November 2016. Effect sizes of eligible studies were pooled using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was tested using Cochrane’s Q test. Subgroup analyses were done according to the method used for estimating dietary acid load.
Results: Of 7033 records, 8 articles (7 cross-sectional, 1 longitudinal) were eligible for inclusion. Higher dietary acid load was associated with high systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean difference [MD] = 0.84 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.04 to 1.64; I2 = 98.4%; p= 039) and diastolic blood pressure (DBO) (MD = 0.75 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.24; I2 = 75.1%; p=002). Subgroup analyses showed that the type of populations involved and participant sex were sources of heterogeneity for both SBP and DBP, while baseline blood pressure and age were heterogeneity sources exclusively for DBP.
Conclusion: High dietary acid load is associated with greater blood pressure. Further studies are needed to explore the precise impact of low dietary acid load on blood pressure in patients with hypertension.