Vol 2, No 4 (Autumn 2016)

Published: 2017-08-04

Editorial

Original Article(s)

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    Objectives: Obesity is a multifactorial condition showing a rapid rise worldwide, especially in children and adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration, TV watching, and dietary intake on the risk of childhood obesity.
    Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 270 primary school children in Tehran, Iran. Sleep duration was measured using an ActiGraph device worn on the wrist. Using a questionnaire completed by parents, screen time (TV, video games, etc.) was estimated. Also, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (version 18, IBM Corporation).
    Conclusion: Screen time is significantly associated with BMI, diet, and sleepin Iranian school children. Further studies are required to elaborate these associations.
    Results: Lower BMI and longer sleep duration were associated with less screen time (p < 0.01). Higher daily energy (1673.4 ± 405.3 kcal), total fat (55.3 ± 19.3 g),carbohydrate (238.5 ± 67.1 g), sugars (114.3 ± 34.9 g), and snack (37.4 ± 19.3 g)consumption as well as lower daily fiber (7.9 ± 3.7 g) and vegetable and fruit (2.6 ±1.3 servings) intakes were significantly correlated with longer screen time in children (p < 0.05). Lower fiber (8.1 ± 4.2 g) as well as fruit and vegetable (2.6 ±1.4 servings) consumption were related to longer sleep duration (≥ 540 min/day) (p< 0.01

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    Background: Nowadays, social acceptance criteria have changed, which can affect the self-esteem of individuals. One of these criteria is people's physical fitness. On the other hand, overweight and obesity have increased in recent decades. That have a substantial impact on physical and mental health. The importance of obesity and self-esteem causes of this study.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2016 on 246 soldiers who were selected Among the Tehran Barracks through cluster sampling according to the inclusion Criteria. Anthropometric measurements were performed according to standards introduced. For each of the participants were recorded 24-hours recall food as face to face and Dietary diversity score was measured. self-esteem was assessed by Rosenberg's questionnaires with Cronbach's coefficient 0.84. In the final analysis confounding factors was controlled and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
    Results: in this study 37% of people had low self-esteem. In the adjusted model, an inverse association was between self-esteem and central obesity (OR = 1.25,95% CI: 1.05-1.53, p-trend = 0.01). as well as People with generalized obesity had Higher risk for having lower self-esteem (OR = 1.50,95% CI: 1.31-1.73, p-trend = 0.01).
    Conclusion: in Overall general and central obesity have an inverse relationship to self-esteem. This relation remains even after controlling potential confounders. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in military populations.

  • Background: To examine the association of combined dietary patterns with physical activity on sarcopenia in menopausal women.
    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 250 menopausal women aged 45–75 were studied. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by a principal component factor analysis method. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Sarcopenia was defined, according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria, as the presence of low muscle mass, plus low muscle performance, or low physical strength.
    Results: two major dietary patterns were found: a prudent pattern (high in vegetable, vegetable oil, fish, dairy, legume, nut, animal protein and fruit), and a western pattern (high in commercial beverage, hydrogenated fat, sugar, sweet-snack, potato, tea-coffee and refined grain). After adjusting for age, we found a significant interaction between the western pattern and physical activity status with the odds of sarcopenia (P-interaction = 0.01) which was higher in active women than those who were inactive, but there was no significant difference between inactive and active participants in the prudent pattern (P-interaction = 0.90).
    Conclusion: increasing physical activity was associated with higher odds of sarcopenia in the western pattern among menopausal women.

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    Background: Mental disorders are prevalent worldwide, and can expose people to significant harm. Diet plays an important role in the development and progression of mental illness. Thus, possible associations were investigated between major dietary patterns and depression, anxiety and stress in adults.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of adult participants (n=265) in Tehran. Anthropometric characteristics were measured, and physical activity was assessed using a short-form physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis on 25 food groups using a valid, reliable, 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The dietary patterns were analyzed by factor analysis (PCA) method. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood parameters. Data about depression, anxiety and stress were collected using the Depression Anxiety Stress Score (DASS-21).
    Results: The unhealthy and healthy dietary patterns were extracted. The findings showed that higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern led to a reduction in the mean depression score (P = 0.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the unhealthy dietary pattern and depression, anxiety and stress scores. In logistic regression models, after adjusting for potential confounders, the results showed that higher adherence to the healthy dietary pattern led to a reduction in anxiety odds ratio (OR) (P = 0.03). There was no statistically significant association between the major dietary patterns with the risk of depression and stress in the crude and adjusted models.
    Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that adherence to a healthy dietary pattern led to a reduction in mean depression score and anxiety OR.

     

Review Article(s)

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    The increasing worldwide trend in childhood obesity is a driving force behind the increase in adolescent’s metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although there is no clear definition about the pediatric MetS, it is very common among adolescents which is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension, that is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD in adulthood. The etiological role of nutritional factors, especially dietary patterns, in the development of obesity and MetS is explored. Also, the evidence that pro-inflammatory stressors may prepare to obesity-induced insulin resistance is reviewed. The present article prospects the opinion that abatement of nutritional risk factors in dietary patterns and reducing the impact of metabolic and inflammatory stressors, may reduce the adverse health effects of obesity and slow the progression towards the MetS and CVD in adolescents. Evidence from pediatric dietary epidemiological and interventional studies that have investigated the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary patterns modification is limited. This review approach will further address the understanding of the interaction between dietary patterns in the pathogenesis and progression of MetS in adolescents.

  • The obesity considered a major public health concern that is increasing around the world. Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation which contributes to metabolic dysfunction. Complelling evidence show potential protective and anti-inflammatory of Curcumin in obesity and metabolic disorder. Curcumin, the active metabolite of turmeric, interacts with white adipose tissue and suppress inflammatory responses through multiple biochemical and cellular mechanisms. Curcumin also can inhibit adipocyte differentiation, enhance fatty acid oxidation, improve lipid profile and has a role in increasing basal metabolic rate and weight control. Hence, curcumin can be considered as a therapeutic agent in modulating obesity and adverse health effects of that. Present review will focus on the all recent studies on potential anti-inflammatory roles of curcumin in obesity. This review is presented in several parts. The first explain inflammatory pathogenesis of obesity, the second the role of curcumin in inflammatory pathways, the third summarized the mechanisms of action of curcumin in adipose tissue and, finally, there is animal and human evidences of the potential beneficial effects of curcumin in obesity.