Vol 1, No 1 (winter 2015)
Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer during chemotherapy
Background: Although some studies have shown positive effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on nutritional status of cancer patients undergoing different treatments, there is no consistency in results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on the nutritional status of gastric cancer patients during the course of chemotherapy.
Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 30 adult patients with gastric cancer receiving chemotherapy were randomized into a supplement and a placebo groups and given daily, for 6 weeks, a 3-g omega-3 fatty acid supplement (containing 1.8g eicosapentaeonic plus 1.2g docosahexaenoic acid) and oral paraffin, respectively. Anthropometric data was collected and nutritional status assessed at the beginning,at week 4 and at the end of week 6. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and independent sample t-test.
Results: The findings indicated that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increased body weight, mean daily intake of energy and macronutrients, serum levels of transferrin and albumin at the end of the 6-week period significantly (p<0.05). All these variables decreased in the placebo group (p<0.05). The increases in body weight, energy and carbohydrate intakes, and serum levels of albumin in the supplement group were time-dependent (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results of present study showed that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can improve nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer during the course of chemotherapy. We recommend using omega-3 fatty acid supplement in patients with gastric cancer during chemotherapy.
Contribution of body composition and activity behaviors to variation of total energy expenditure in pre-school children
Background: Although it is widely accepted that the pre-school age is a critical period in the development of obesity, there are few published data on factors contributing to variation of total energy expenditure in this age group.To investigate the contribution of body composition, gender and activity on total energy expenditure (TEE) in pre-school children.
Methods: The total energy expenditure of 89 children (2-6 years old) was measured using the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total and regional body composition were also measured using deuterium dilution and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) respectively. Physical activity and sleep patterns were evaluated using an accelerometer. Principal components analysis (PCA) were performed on regional fat mass (FM), regional fat free mass (FFM) and behavioural variables (activity, inactivity and sleep patterns), to generate orthogonal predictors for regression analyses.
Results: No significant difference was found between boys and girls for, log weight, height, BMI sds, total FFM and log FM measured by DXA and total FFM and log obtained with deuterium dilution. No significant gender difference was found for regional traits of FFM and FM except for trunk’ FFM (p=0.02) and legs’ FFM (p=0.04), which were higher in boys. FFM and FM measured by DXA explained 70.9% of the variation in TEE, and TEE was significantly lower amongst girls after adjustments for body composition were made (p<0.01). The first component of FFM (PC1-FFM), FM (PC1-FM) and behavioural variables (PC1-BV) were positively (p<0.01) related to TEE and there was a significant negative relationship with PC2- FM (p<0.05) and PC4-BV (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Most variation in TEE in this group was explained by difference in FFM and FM. Behavioural factors, particularly time spent in high activities could make an additional contribution of 20.9% in variation of free-living TEE. More research is needed to confirm these findings in other population.
The effect of garlic consumption on Helicobacter pylori treatment using urea breath test: a randomized clinical trial
Background: There have been a number of reports indicating that garlic can inhibit helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in vitro; however, there is few clinical trials evaluating its effect in human infection. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic consumption on urea breath test (UBT) results in patients with H. pylori infection.
Methods: We performed a randomized case-controlled design on 36 outpatients diagnosed with H. pylori infection. In order to confirm the presence of H. pylori infection, the UBT was performed and in order to examine the presence of inflammation and/or ulcer in stomach, esophagus and duodenum, upper endoscopy was performed at the beginning and the end of the study. The patients in the case group took four grams of garlic powder daily (two tablets each containing two grams of garlic powder) whereas the patients in the control group took two placebo tablets (each containing two grams of white flour) for 8 weeks.
Results: The average age was 40.87± 16.45 in case groups and 35.40±11.26 in the control group. In the control group, 47% were men and 53% women, 80% married and the rest were single. At the beginning of the study, all the patients had positive UBT. At the end of this study, the results of UBT showed that the H. pylori infection was negative in 87% of cases and 73% of control group showing eradication of H. pylori infection; however the eradication in case group was not significantly more than control group.
Conclusion: This study did not support a role for garlic in the treatment of H. pylori infection.
Effect of EPA supplementation on body mass index in overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects with different FABP2 and PPARα genotypes
Background: Obesity is a consequence of the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue which can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity is a major health problem in Iran. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EPA consumption on BMI and fasting blood sugar by FABP2 genotypes and PPARα (Leu162Val, and G/C intron polymorphism) genotypes.
Methods: A total of 170 hypertriglyceridemic subjects were selected and genotyped for Ala54Thr, using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. After determination of their FABP2 genotypes, the first 23 eligible subjects who were determined as Ala54 carriers and the first 23 eligible Thr54 carriers were enrolled in the study. Participants took 2 g/d of pure EPA (four gel caps, each containing 500 mg of ethylester EPA 90%). Height and weight were measured by a Seca scale with light clothing and no shoes on. BMI was then calculated. Waist and hip circumferences were measured with a flexible tape.
Results: EPA supplementation decreased fasting blood sugar in Ala54 and Thr54 (p<0.001). No significant association was observed between BMI or fasting blood sugar and different FABP2 genotypes after EPA consumption. EPA supplementation increased BMI and decreased fasting blood sugar in Lue162 and Val162 (p<0.01), and interon 7 polymorphism (p<0.01). No interaction was observed between PPARα genotypes and degree of changes in BMI or fasting blood sugar after EPA supplementation.
Conclusion: Although EPA consumption showed the effect of EPA response on FBS in Ala54 or Thr54 and Leu162 or Val162 in FABP2 and PPARα genotypes but no interaction was observed between these genotypes and EPA supplementation.
Background: Liver cancer is one of the deadly cancers with high prevalence in the East Asia. Likewise most of diseases, herbs and herbal medicine could be an easy and cost effective tool in prevention and possible cancer treatment. The present study investigated the ability of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth decoction to protect liver against hepatocellular carcinoma in carcinogenesis-induced animal model.
Methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats (age: 8±1 weeks, weight: 248.1±7.21g) were obtained and 10 rats were kept as normal group. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced for the rest 30 of rats by means of intraperitoneal injection of 200mg/kg diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) dissolved in corn oil. Induced cancer rats were under hepatocarcinogenesis promoter diet made from a mixture of standard rat diet (AIN-76) with 2-acetylaminofluorene (0.02% AAF) for two weeks. Two weeks after this diet, left over rats were divided to two groups as control and treatment. Treatment group, were forced feed daily with 0.7 ml O. stamineus decoction.
Results: After 28 weeks treatment with O. stamineus decoction, serum biochemical markers including alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT),corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), homocysteine (HCY), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and alpha 2 macroglobulin (α2MG) have been regulated favorably. Total antioxidant status (TAS) also has been increased drastically. Liver lesion score in treated groups were reduced and glucocorticoid activity has been amplified significantly.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that O. stamineus decoction might prevent or subdue liver cancer development.
New emerging correlates of weight satisfaction in women: husband-related factors and caffeine intake
Background: Weight satisfaction is an important determinant of weight-related behaviors and may result in overweight, obesity or eating disorders. To assess weight satisfaction and its related factors, including dietary intake and spouse- related factors, in adult women.
Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study carried out in North of Iran. Through random sampling, 450 women aged 22-55 years under coverage of health centers were recruited from May 2012 to February 2013. Data were collected by face to face interviewing the individuals. Participants’ height, and weight and waist circumferences were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. We used the 24-hour recall questionnaire to estimate food intake in two days of the week. Weight satisfaction was evaluated through questioning. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the major factors related to weight satisfaction.
Results: Weight satisfaction was 62.4% among women. About 70% of women were overweight or obese (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). The odds of weight dissatisfaction were higher in younger, healthy individuals and those who take more caffeine on a daily basis. Moreover, the odds of weight dissatisfaction were lower in underweight/normal weight (BMI< 25 kg/m2) women and the overweight women. In addition, the rate of dissatisfaction was significantly higher in women who believed their husbands are dissatisfied about their weight and women whose husbands were in fact dissatisfied about their weight.
Conclusion: Weight satisfaction was prevalent in participants and related to age, disease status, caffeine intake, BMI and husband-related factors.
Diet as a part of lifestyle plays a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Fatty acid composition as a part of dietary intake affects blood fatty acid concentrations, insulin sensitivity and different metabolic pathways associated with the occurrence and consequences of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. A search was conducted through PubMed, Google scholar and Science Direct using keywords including metabolic syndrome, MetS, diet, fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega3, omega6 and fish oil, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, obesity and blood glucose. We included English articles published from 1995 to 2014. Based on the results of the studies reviewed, intake of saturated fatty acids by increasing LDL-C, total cholesterol and oxidized LDL and arterial stiffness was associated with increased insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. In contrast, supplements containing omega-3 and monounsaturated fatty acids such as fish and rapeseed oil can reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome and its consequences risk factors by lowering triglycerides, cholesterol, inflammation and oxidative stress. Low intake of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids with increased intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be useful in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and its consequences.