Effect of EPA supplementation on body mass index in overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects with different FABP2 and PPARα genotypes
Background: Obesity is a consequence of the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue which can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity is a major health problem in Iran. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EPA consumption on BMI and fasting blood sugar by FABP2 genotypes and PPARα (Leu162Val, and G/C intron polymorphism) genotypes.
Methods: A total of 170 hypertriglyceridemic subjects were selected and genotyped for Ala54Thr, using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. After determination of their FABP2 genotypes, the first 23 eligible subjects who were determined as Ala54 carriers and the first 23 eligible Thr54 carriers were enrolled in the study. Participants took 2 g/d of pure EPA (four gel caps, each containing 500 mg of ethylester EPA 90%). Height and weight were measured by a Seca scale with light clothing and no shoes on. BMI was then calculated. Waist and hip circumferences were measured with a flexible tape.
Results: EPA supplementation decreased fasting blood sugar in Ala54 and Thr54 (p<0.001). No significant association was observed between BMI or fasting blood sugar and different FABP2 genotypes after EPA consumption. EPA supplementation increased BMI and decreased fasting blood sugar in Lue162 and Val162 (p<0.01), and interon 7 polymorphism (p<0.01). No interaction was observed between PPARα genotypes and degree of changes in BMI or fasting blood sugar after EPA supplementation.
Conclusion: Although EPA consumption showed the effect of EPA response on FBS in Ala54 or Thr54 and Leu162 or Val162 in FABP2 and PPARα genotypes but no interaction was observed between these genotypes and EPA supplementation.
Micallef M, Munro I, Phang M, Garg M. Plasma n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids are negatively associated with obesity. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(9):1370-4.
Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. 2003;32(4):805-22, viii.
Aguilar-Salinas CA, Rojas R, Gomez-Perez FJ, Valles V, Rios-Torres JM, Franco A, et al. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Mexico. Archives of medical research. 2004; 35(1):76-81.
Sanchez-Castillo CP, Velasquez-Monroy O, Lara- Esqueda A, Berber A, Sepulveda J, Tapia-Conyer R, et al. Diabetes and hypertension increases in a society with abdominal obesity: results of the Mexican National Health Survey 2000. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(1):53-60.
Tchernof A, Lamarche B, Prud'Homme D, Nadeau A, Moorjani S, Labrie F, et al. The dense LDL phenotype. Association with plasma lipoprotein levels, visceral obesity, and hyperinsulinemia in men. Diabetes care. 1996;19(6):629-37.
Loos RJ, Bouchard C. Obesity--is it a genetic disorder? J Intern Med. 2003;254(5):401-25.
Kelishadi R, Alikhani S, Delavari A, Alaedini F, Safaie A, Hojatzadeh E. Obesity and associated lifestyle behaviours in Iran: findings from the First National Non-communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Public Health Nutr. 2008;11(3):246-51.
Ayatollahi SM, Ghoreshizadeh Z. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among adults in Iran. Obes Rev. 2010;11(5):335-7.
Hosseinpanah F, Barzin M, Eskandary PS, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Trends of obesity and abdominal obesity in Tehranian adults: a cohort study. BMC public health. 2009;9:426.
Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003; 23(2):e20-30.
Kunesova M, Braunerova R, Hlavaty P, Tvrzicka E, Stankova B, Skrha J, et al. The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese women. Physiological research.
; 55(1):63-72.12. Friedberg CE, Janssen MJ, Heine RJ, Grobbee DE. Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes care. 1998;21(4):494-500.
Baier LJ, Sacchettini JC, Knowler WC, Eads J, Paolisso G, Tataranni PA, et al. An amino acid substitution in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein is associated with increased fatty acid binding, increased fat oxidation, and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 1995; 95(3):1281-7.
Baier LJ, Bogardus C, Sacchettini JC. Apolymorphism in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein alters fatty acid transport across Caco-2 cells. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(18):10892-6.
Agren JJ, Vidgren HM, Valve RS, Laakso M, Uusitupa MI. Postprandial responses of individual fatty acids in subjects homozygous for the threonine- or alanine-encoding allele in codon 54 of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(1):31-5.
Sipilainen R, Uusitupa M, Heikkinen S, Rissanen A, Laakso M. Variants in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene in obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82(8):2629-32.
Pishva H, Mahboob SA, Mehdipour P, Eshraghian MR, Mohammadi-Asl J, Hosseini S, et al. Fatty acid-binding protein-2 genotype influences lipid and lipoprotein response to eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Nutrition. 2010;(11-12):1117-21.
Pishva H, Mahboob, S A, Mehdipour, P, Eshraghian, M R, Mohammadi-Asl, J, Saeed Hosseini M, PhD, Mazaher Rahmany. Association between the FABP2 Ala54Thr, PPARa Leu162/Val, and PPARa intron7 polymorphisms and blood lipids ApoB and ApoCIII in hypertriglyceridemic subjects in Tehran. Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 2009; 3(3):(2009) 3, 187–194.
Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, O'Neal DN, Best JD, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr; 2000;71(5):1085-94.
Morcillo S, Rojo-Martinez G, Cardona F, Almaraz Mde L, de Adana Mde L, Esteva I, et al. Effect of the interaction between the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on peripheral insulin sensitivity: a cross-sectional study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):1232-7.
Fasching P, Ratheiser K, Waldhausl W, Rohac M, Osterrode W, Nowotny P, et al. Metabolic effects of fish-oil supplementation in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 1991;40(5):583-9.
Wanjihia VW, Kiplamai FK, Waudo JN, Boit MK. Post-prandial glucose levels and consumption of omega 3 fatty acids and saturated fats among two rural populations in Kenya. East African medical journal. 2009;86(6):259-66.
Takeuchi H, Sekine S, Noguchi O, Murano Y, Aoyama T, Matsuo T. Effect of life-long dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on life span, serum lipids and serum glucose in Wistar rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009; 55(5): 394-9.
Ramel A, Martinez A, Kiely M, Morais G, Bandarra NM, Thorsdottir I. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy- restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults. Diabetologia.2008; 51(7):1261-8.
Perez-Bravo F, Fuentes M, Angel B, Sanchez H, Carrasco E, Santos JL, et al. Lack of association between the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) polymorphism with obesity and insulin resistance in two aboriginal populations from Chile. Acta Diabetol. 2006;43(4):93-8.
Berthier MT, Couillard C, Prud'homme D, Nadeau A, Bergeron J, Tremblay A, et al. Effects of the FABP2 A54T mutation on triglyceride metabolism of viscerally obese men. Obesity research. 2001; 9(11):668-75.
Vimaleswaran KS, Radha V, Mohan V. Thr54 allele carriers of the Ala54Thr variant of FABP2 gene have associations with metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia in urban South Indians. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2006;55(9):1222-6.
Fisher E, Li Y, Burwinkel B, Kuhr V, Hoffmann K, Mohlig M, et al. Preliminary evidence of FABP2 A54T polymorphism associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in women from a German cohort. Hormone and metabolic research. 2006; 38(5):341-5.
Jakobsen MU, Dethlefsen C, Due KM, May AM, Romaguera D, Vergnaud AC, et al. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men. Br J Nutr.2013;109(2):353-62.
Matsuo T, Nakata Y, Katayama Y, Iemitsu M, Maeda S, Okura T, et al. PPARG genotype accounts for part of individual variation in body weight reduction in response to calorie restriction. Obesity. 2009; 17(10):1924-31.
Bosse Y, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Perusse L, Vohl MC. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha L162V mutation is associated with reduced adiposity. Obesity research. 2003;11(7):809-16.
Doney AS, Fischer B, Lee SP, Morris AD, Leese G, Palmer CN. Association of common variation in the PPARA gene with incident myocardial infarction in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a Go-DARTS study. Nuclear receptor. 2005; 3:4.
Nielsen EM, Hansen L, Echwald SM, Drivsholm T, Borch-Johnsen K, Ekstrom CT, et al. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Jul;13(7):417-23.
Vohl MC, Lepage P, Gaudet D, Brewer CG, Betard C, Perron P, et al. Molecular scanning of the human PPARa gene: association of the L162v mutation with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. J Lipid Res. 2000;41(6):945-52.
Lacquemant C, Lepretre F, Pineda Torra I, Manraj M, Charpentier G, Ruiz J, et al. Mutation screening of the PPARalpha gene in type 2 diabetes associated with coronary heart disease. Diabetes & metabolism. 2000;26(5):393-401.
Gouni-Berthold I, Giannakidou E, Muller- Wieland D, Faust M, Kotzka J, Berthold HK, et al.
Association between the PPARalpha L162V polymorphism, plasma lipoprotein levels, and atherosclerotic disease in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and in nondiabetic controls. Am Heart J. 2004;147(6):1117-24.
Evans D, Aberle J, Wendt D, Wolf A, Beisiegel U, Mann WA. A polymorphism, L162V, in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) gene is associated with lower body mass index in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J J Mol Med (Berl).. 2001 May;79(4):198-204.
Uthurralt J, Gordish-Dressman H, Bradbury M, Tesi-Rocha C, Devaney J, Harmon B, et al. PPARalpha L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males. BMC medical genetics. 2007;8:55.
Evans D, Aberle J, Wendt D, Wolf A, Beisiegel U, Mann WA. A polymorphism, L162V, in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) gene is associated with lower body mass index in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Mol Med (Berl). 2001;79(4):198-204.
Sparso T, Hussain MS, Andersen G, Hainerova I, Borch-Johnsen K, Jorgensen T, et al. Relationships between the functional PPAR alpha Leu162Val polymorphism and obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and related quantitative traits in studies of 5799 middle-aged white people. Mol Genet Metab. 2007; 90(2):205-9.
Aldhoon B, Zamrazilova H, Aldhoon Hainerova I, Sramkova P, Spalova J, Kunesova M, et al. Role of the PPARalpha Leu162Val and PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala gene polymorphisms in weight change after 2.5-year follow-up in Czech obese women. Folia biologica.56(3):116-23.
Arai T, Kim HJ, Chiba H, Matsumoto A. Anti- obesity effect of fish oil and fish oil-fenofibrate combination in female KK mice. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009; 16(5):674-83.
|Issue||Vol 1, No 1 (winter 2015)|
|Body Mass Index Eicosapentaenoic acid Fatty acid binding protein 2 Fasting Blood Sugar PPARα genotypes|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|