Vol 4, No 4 (Autumn 2018)
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether beetroot juice can alter total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in female soccer players.
Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, female soccer players (n=20) were selected randomly and assigned into two groups: experimental (beetroot juice, n= 10) and control (placebo, n = 10). Subjects did their soccer training for six weeks (3 sessions per week for 90 min) with a consumption of 200 ml juice 2 hours before they started their training. Blood samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory. After separating the serum from the plasma, serum was put on the total antioxidant capacity' kits and total antioxidant capacity was investigated in the pretest and posttest.
Results: Findings showed that the experimental group had a significant increase in TAC after taking beetroot juice consumption (P<0.001) compared to baseline. Also, compared to the control group, there was a significant difference between experimental and control groups in TAC changes (P<0.001).
Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that 6 weeks of beetroot juice consumption positively affects TAC in female soccer players.
Prevalence of Overweight/ Obesity and Some Associated Factors among Rural/ Urbanites of Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background: This study aimed at estimating the classified prevalence of overweight and obesity status and determine potential influencing factor of age and gender among rural/ urbanites attending Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital.
Methods: A cross-sectional study survey was conducted in Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya, from the month of March to June, 2018. A total of 139 male and 201 female aged 13 to 96 years from general rural/urban population were included using a simple random sampling design. Data was also collected on socio-demographics using a general questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric measurements. The sampled data was used to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and analyze influencing factor of age and gender through corresponding statistical method done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Software version 22.0 and MS Excel version 2010. Rural/urban setting was considered too. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
Results: The overall prevalence of overweight was 31.0% of which female were 63.2% and male 36.8%; whereas, the overall prevalence of obesity was 25% of which female 74%; male 24%) among the population sampled. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher in female compared to male. There was no significant difference between rural and urbanites.
Conclusion: The factors of age and gender were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity as classified by body mass index. Therefore, further research studies required to explore other indicators, best pointers to understanding of changes in overweight and obesity over time.
Nutrition Labels: Attention to, Understanding and Use in Food Choice by People Referring to Health Houses in Tehran, Iran
Background: Nutrition labels can be used as a guide for choosing healthier foods and adopting a better diet. The aim of this study was to determine users’ attention to, understanding, and, use of nutrition labels and their relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and anthropometric status.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from spring to summer 2017. Using random cluster sampling, a total of 384 adults were selected from among the people referring to health houses in Tehran. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire completed by interviewing the subjects and analyzed through stepwise multiple regression analysis.
Results: Women were more prone to pay attention to nutrition labels (P=0.05). People with academic education understood nutrition labels (about 7 times) more than other people (P=0.02). Furthermore, the participants’ understanding of nutrition labels decreased with aging (P< 0.001). People with a higher economic level and a recent history of going on a specific diet used nutrition labels more than other people (P<0.001). In addition, people with a history of diabetes mellitus were more likely to pay attention to nutrition labels (P=0.03) and use in food choice (almost 8 times more than healthy subjects) (P=0.04).
Conclusion: Attention to, understanding and use of nutrition labels by the subjects were strongly associated with age, economic status, educational level and recent history of going on a particular diet. Individuals with a normal body weight paid more attention to, and were willing to use the information contained in, food labels.
Adequacy of Energy Consumption and Macronutrients of the Elderly in Tabriz: Association with Cognitive Function
Background: We aimed to investigate whether the elderly living in Tabriz, Iran meet the requirements for energy and macronutrients intake, and to examine the relationship of their dietary intake to cognitive function.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 164 elderly subjects aged 65 years and older were enrolled. Anthropometric and dietary parameters were measured. The cognitive performance was assessed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and compered between males and females. The associations of energy, BMI, and macronutrients with cognitive function were also investigated.
Results: About half of the participants (n=83, 50.6%) had BMI in normal range, 22.6% (n=37) were underweight, while 26.8% (n=44) were overweight/obese. Average daily energy intake was 1235.21 (360.89) kcal/day; in 87 (53%) of the elderly, total energy intake was lower than the recommended intake. The subjects consumed 0.77g protein/kg body weight. Fat intake <20-35% (the recommended values) was observed in 93.3% (n=153) of the participants. Additionally, 123 cases (76.4%) suffered from cognitive impairment. A significant difference was also found between genders for cognitive status (p<0.001). A significant association of BMI and fat and protein intake was found with cognitive function.
Conclusion: This study revealed that a relatively high percentage of the elderly had inadequate and unbalanced nutritional intake. Additionally, the degree of cognitive decline was remarkable in the studied subjects. There was a relationship between dietary intake and cognitive performance. Due to the higher vulnerability to nutritional deficiencies and cognitive impairments of the elderly, more attention of health professional to nutritional and cognitive status is warranted.
Association between FokI Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Visceral Obesity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Single-Blinded Randomised Clinical Trial
Background: Role of genetic variants on the effect of vitamin D on adiposity measures is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on visceral adiposity using intake of vitamin D fortified doogh.
Methods: This was a single-blinded randomised clinical trial which seventy type 2 diabetic Iranian subjects were randomly allocated to two groups of receiving plain Doogh (PD; n 32, containing 170 mg Ca and no vitamin D/250 ml) or vitamin D3-fortified Doogh (FD; n 38, containing 170 mg Ca and 12•5 μg/250 ml) twice a day for 3 months. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, anthropometric measures, body composition, glycaemic status and visceral obesity indicators assessed twice before and after the intervention. Genotyping was conducted for FokI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene by polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Serum 25(OH)D (P<0.001) was increased in FD compared to PD and waist circumference (P= 0.022), fat mass (P<0.001), visceral adipose tissue (P<0.001), and trunk fat (P<0.001) were decreased after 3-month intervention. Analysis of FOK-1 genotyping was showed significant change for 25(OH)D (P=0.03), FSG (P=0.036), HbA1c (P=0.003), waist circumference (P=0.045), waist: hip ratio (P=0.04), fat mass (P=0.016), visceral adipose tissue (P=0.024), and Truncal fat (P=0.004) after Tukey’s post hoc analysis.
Conclusion: In conclusion, FD compared to PD could increase serum 25(OH)D and improve glyceamic, anthropometric, and visceral obesity indicators. Moreover, significant differences was seen between FOK-1 (FF, Ff, and ff) genotypic groups for 25(OH)D, FSG, HbA1c, waist circumference, waist: hip ratio, fat mass, visceral adipose tissue, and Truncal fat
Food Group Consumption Pattern of School-aged Children and Adolescents Inside and Outside the School Setting: a Cross-sectional Study of a Community in North-eastern Iran
Background: The objective of this study is to describe the food group consumption pattern of school-aged children and adolescents inside and outside the school setting.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of 384 primary and secondary school students, and enrolled in 1th to 12th grade in schools of the province of North Khorasan, Iran. Food intake and dietary pattern were assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs), through a self-reported three-day dietary record. The 24HRs were collected by trained interviewers between March and May 2019. The frequency of consumption of foods or food groups was summarized by a single value for each school student, according to the recommendations provided by the Department of Community Nutrition in Iranian Ministry of the Health and Medical Education.
Results: Most of the primary and secondary school students were eating fewer than the optimum recommended servings of milk and milk products (39.8%), fruits and natural juices (63.8%) and vegetables and tubers (47.1%), the optimum recommended servings of meats and eggs (49.0%), and more than the optimum recommended servings of bread and cereals (47.1%) and legumes and nuts (46.4%). According to the mean of 24-hour recalls, there were significant differences in the consumption of food groups between the tertiles of the dietary pattern (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There is evidence that school-aged children and adolescents are in food insecurity. The study reinforces the importance of nutrition education actions and more effective public policies for promoting healthier food choices in childhood and adolescence.
Body Mass Index and Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis
Background: The association of obesity with risk of chronic kidney disease has been accepted, but considering the possible indications of the obesity paradox in patients with early-stage kidney disease, the association between baseline body mass index (BMI) and future risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population has not been established yet.
Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Scopus for relevant studies published from database inception to June 2018. Longitudinal cohort studies reporting risk estimates of ESRD for three or more categories of BMI in the general population were included. Pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated using a random-effects model.
Results: The analysis included eight prospective cohort studies, one nested case-control study, one nested case-referent study, and two retrospective cohort studies (2,063,895 individuals and 5874 cases of end-stage renal disease). The pooled RR of ESRD for a 5-unit increment in BMI was 1.19 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.35; I2 = 94.1%). The strength of the association might be age-related; in a way that, a significant positive association was found in those with a mean age <50 years, but not those aged ≥50 years. A nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that the risk of ESRD was similar within BMI of 15-23 kg/m2, and then increased sharply and linearly at a BMI of approximately 25 kg/m2.
Conclusion: Obesity and overweight condition are associated with a higher risk of ESRD. Being as lean as possible within the normal weight range may help to prevent ESRD.