Vol 4, No 2 (Spring 2018)

Published: 2018-08-30


Original Article(s)

  • Objective: Strenuous exercise increases inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Dietary antioxidants can alter this inflammatory/oxidative state. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tomato juice consumption as a rich source of lycopene (a potent antioxidant) on inflammatory biomarkers in male athletes following exhaustive exercise.
    Methods: Thirty male university students were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group consumed 200 mL of tomato juice (containing 50 mg of lycopene) daily for one week and then performed a treadmill running exercise at 18 km/h till exhaustion. The control group consumed the same amount of water and performed the same exercise. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise for analysis of IL-6, CRP, and the oxidant to antioxidant ratio. IL-6 and CRP were measured using ELISA. Oxidant to antioxidant ratio was measured with a colorimetric assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.
    Results: The mean decrease in CRP level in the tomato juice group was significantly greater compared with the control group (-0.4 vs 0.001 mg/L, p = 0.002). The level of IL-6 and the oxidant to antioxidant ratio did not change after exercise in either the tomato juice or the control group.
    Conclusion: Our data showed for the first time that consumption of tomato juice, which is a major source of the antioxidant lycopene, can lead to a decrease in systemic inflammation post exercise. This may present a useful approach to protecting against inflammation-induced muscle damage and to improving exercise performance in athletes.

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    Objective: Some food-derived bioactive peptides have demonstrated positive effects on stress reduction. This study was an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of daily consumption of 12 g of sugar-free chocolate containing 150 mg of αs1-casein (91-100) peptide in alleviating stress in healthy, normal-weight participants.
    Methods: Salivary cortisol concentration and self-report questionnaire data were obtained before and after chocolate consumption. Sixty participants completed the Cattle Anxiety Scale (CSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21).
    Results: Results from the CAS and DASS-21 questionnaires showed that consumption of chocolate containing bioactive peptide reduced anxiety and stress (p < 0.05). Salivary cortisol measurement showed more than 30% reduction in cortisol level in the intervention group. The peptide had a 95% recovery rate and also demonstrated  thermal and mechanical stability during the production process.
    Conclusion: Findings confirmed the undenatured structure of the αs1-casein peptide in chocolate and its resistance to the chocolate processing condition.

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    Objective: This study aimed to compare the effect of L-arginine and L-citrulline supplementation on overall prognosis of critically ill patients.
    Method: A total of 105 head trauma ICU patients were recruited in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients in the treatment groups took 10 gr per day oral L-Arginine or L-citrulline for 10 days.  Demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Nitric oxide (NOx), pre-albumin, pro-oxidant, anti-oxidant balance, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver enzymes, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and serum amino acids were measured. Gastrointestinal complications, ventilator need, length of hospital stay and 28-day mortality were recorded. The K2 testing system was used to compare the qualitative variables. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare means across variables. In case of significant time-group interaction, between group comparisons of changes at day 11 were done using ANOVA followed by Tukey or Mann Whitney analysis. When time effect factor was significant, the within-group comparison of values was performed by paired samples t test or Wilcoxon.
    Results : We observed no significant changes in NOx and PAB (P= 0.8, P= 0.1 respectively). There was a significant increase in serum LDL (P= 0.02) which was higher in the control group after 10 days of supplementation. There was non-significant increase in serum L-arginine in all three groups (P=0.36). However, changes of serum L-arginine was significant in the citrulline group (P=0.048). Serum L-citrulline was higher in the citrulline group compare to the arginine group (P=0.04).
    Conclusion:: L-arginine and L-citrulline supplementation did not increased NOx levels more than the control group. Also, PAB balance was not different among the intervention groups and the control group. L-arginine and L-citrulline had no significant effects on length of hospital stay, mortality rate, ventilator need and other factors evaluated in this study.



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    Objective: Obesity and its physical and psychological consequences is a multi-factorial status and relate to several factors including genetics, lifestyle, and body image (BI). Therefore, an accurate understanding of the leading causes and establishing appropriate approaches for its control, would be an important issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the body image perception in schoolchildren and its relationionship with maternal perception of child weight and some lifestyle factors in Tehran, Iran.
    Methods : In this cross-sectional weight status of 1598 children was categorized according to the World Health Organization reference charts of body mass index in Tehran, Iran. The Collins Seven Figure Scale and a pretest questionnaire was used to assess the body image and some lifestyle factors in children and mothers of obese children. The relationship between variables and body image was analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyzes in SPSS (version.19).
    Results: 72.4% of obese and 51.8% of non-obese children did not have an accurate body image. 60.2% of bese children`s mothers had an accurate perception of their children`s body image. Among all variables, a significant correlation was found between obese children and their mother`s body image (P=0.005) and father`s educational level(P=0.002).
    Conclusion:It was found that most obese school children had an inaccurate perception of body image .Mothers of obese children had better body image perception of their children. It is suggested that regarding with better perception of body image, improving lifestyle factors would be important in prevention and control of obesity .

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    Objective: This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among 14-18-year-old adolescents of Shiraz-Iran.
    Methods: Using a multistage random sampling of 289 males and 249 females, were recruited. Daily physical activity, calorie intake and other important information were obtained using two days 24-hour recall of physical activities, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a self-administrative questionnaire respectively. Height, weight and BMI z-scores were measured based on standard protocols.
    Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18% and 6.7% respectively. Prevalence of overweight including obesity was associated negatively with socioeconomic status of school area (χ²=6.6, p=0.037), father’s total years of schooling (13.5% vs. 41.4% and 45.1%), supplement consumption (χ²=6.0, p=0.015), energy density of foods (χ²=10.3, p=0.006) but was positively associated with calorie restraint (χ²=7.9, p=0.005), family history of obesity (χ²=14.8, p=0.000), sleep disturbances (χ²=14.1, p=0.042) and body satisfaction (χ²=13.1, p=0.001). Socioeconomic status of school area (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1-3.2), supplement consumption (OR=0.2, 95% CI=0.1-0.8), calorie restraint (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.5-5.8), family history of obesity (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2-2.9), body satisfaction (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1-3.4) energy density of foods (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2-0.9) and sleeping hours (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.6) contributed significantly to overweight after controlling for other variables.
    Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that overweight/obesity was prevalent among Iranian adolescents. Encouraging adolescents especially those with a positive family history of obesity to follow more favorable lifestyle may markedly protect them against the onset of obesity and its psychosocial and physical consequences.

Review Article(s)

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    Objective: We aimed to review and update data on the effectiveness of vitamin D on thyroid auto antibodies, anti-TPO and anti-TG in adults.
    Methods: Scopus and PubMed search engines were used up to February 2018 for clinical trials without any restriction in time and language. The outcome parameters were thyroid auto antibodies, anti-TPO and anti-TG. We included studies which reported aim parameters. Results were summarized as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Effect sizes were pooled using random-effects models (the DerSimonian-Laird estimator).
    Results: Eight trials involving 526 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Vitamin D supplementation did not significantly changed the serum level of anti-TPO (MD: -46.901 IU/mL, 95% CI: -111.841, 18.039, p=0.157) and anti-TG (MD: -0.903 IU/mL, 95% CI: -2.208, 0.401, p = 0.175) with high heterogeneity (I2= 77.1%, p= 0.000, I2= 26.5%, p= 0.253). Anti-TPO reduction was considerable in mixed-sex and low quality trials, doses of ≥ 1000 IU, periods of ≥ 2 months , AITD patients and in subjects with lower initial serum levels of vitamin D and higher initial serum level of anti-TPO  (p <0.0001).
    Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation did not improve the serum levels of anti-TPO and anti-TG. The effects of vitamin D supplementing on AITD should be further investigated by conducting larger sample size and well-defined trials of long enough duration.