Journal of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics 2015. 1(2):71-79.

Dietary intake of vitamin D and metabolic syndrome after 3-year follow-up: Tehran lipid and glucose study
Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Hossein Delshad, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi


Background: The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary intakes of vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Tehranian adults, Iran.

Methods: In this population-based prospective study, a sample of 2357 subjects, aged 20-74 years, who had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, were  studied.  MetS  was  defined  according to  the  modified  guidelines of  the National Cholesterol Education Program Adults Treatment Panel III.

Results: Median intakes of vitamin D were 1.5 and 1.6 µ g/day in men and women respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors, dietary vitamin D intake was inversely associated with fasting blood glucose (β = -0.085, p = 0.004) and waist circumference (β = -0.065, p = 0.035); these associations were attenuated following  further  adjustment  for  demographics,  body  mass  index  (BMI)  and dietary factors ((β = -0.066, p = 0.030) and (β = -0.065, p = 0.044), respectively. An association was observed between incidence of MetS and vitamin D intake (p trend = 0.040), independent of age, gender, smoking, physical activity; this association remained following further adjustment for BMI (p for trend = 0.044) and dietary factors (p for trend = 0.051).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant inverse association between dietary vitamin D intake, MetS, and some of its components after controlling for confounding factors.


Vitamin D; Metabolic syndrome; Adults; Iran

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