Assessment of wheat flour fortification by premix (iron and folic acid) in flour factories of Zanjan province, Iran, 2016

  • Adel Mirza Alizadeh Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
  • Rasool Haj Heidary Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
  • Javad Tajkey Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
  • Majid Aminzare Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
  • Jalal Hejazi Mail Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Keywords:
Flour fortification, Premix, Spectrophotometry, Spot test, Zanjan

Abstract

Background: Fortification has an important role in correction of dietary micronutrients deficiencies. The aim of the present study is to assess the fortification of wheat flour with premix, which includes iron and folic acid, in Zanjan province.

Methods: Totally 479 samples were obtained from active flour producing factories of Zanjan (5 Factories) during year 2016. Amount of fortification in bakery products was measured with spot test and UV spectrophotometric method and was compared with the standard values of Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA).

Results: Qualitative assessment of iron in Tafton/Lavash and Barbari flours has revealed that the fortification program was successful in all the cases (100%) according to the standard values of IFDA. Quantitative evaluation of iron in Tafton/Lavash and Barbari flours has indicated that 72.68% and 68.46% of samples had iron in standard ranges (40-85ppm), respectively. The average concentrations of iron in Tafton/Lavash and Barbari flours were 62 and 57.91ppm, respectively. According to the results, an average Iranian receives about 7.5mg/d iron from the fortified wheat flour.

Conclusions: The results suggest that fortification of wheat flour with premix is in an acceptable condition in Zanjan province.

Author Biographies

Adel Mirza Alizadeh, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Food and Drug Deputy
Rasool Haj Heidary, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Food and Drug Deputy
Javad Tajkey, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine
Majid Aminzare, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Assistant Professor of Food Hygiene, Department of Food Safety and Hygiene, School of Health
Jalal Hejazi, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Assistant Professor of Nutrition, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine

References

Allen L, De Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Geneva. 2006.

Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, De Onis M, Ezzati M, et al. Maternal and child under nutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet. 2008; 371(9608):243-60.

Food Fortification Initiative. Legislation status from the food fortification initiative. Internet: http://www.ffinetwork.org/global_progress/WheatNov2016.jpg (accessed 01 June 2017).

Movsisyan A. Fortification of wheat flour with folic acid and iron benefits and risks- A Literature Review. The American University of Armenia. 2015.

Czeizel A, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural tube efects by Periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl med J. 1992;327:1832-5.

Youman S. Neurological Surgery: New York, NY; 1990.

Scorsatto M, Uehara SK, Luiz RR, de Oliveira GMM, Rosa G. Fortification of flours with folic acid reduces homocysteine levels in Brazilian women. Nutr Res. 2011;31(12):889-95.

Castillo-Lancellotti C, Tur JA, Uauy R. Impact of folic acid fortification of flour on neural tube defects: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(5).

De Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. WHO Global Database on Anaemia. 2008.

Sayehmiri K, Darvishi Z, Hafezi Ahmadi MR, Azami M. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in Iran (1991-2015): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2015;2(4):221-32.

Hurrell RF. Fortification: overcoming technical and practical barriers. J Nutr. 2002;132(806-812).

UNICEF. Preventing iron deficiency in women and children. Technical consensus on key issues. A UNICEF/UNU/WHO/MI Technical Workshop. 1998.

WHO. Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean. Progress report on flour fortification in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RC48/INF.DOC.6. 48th Sessions. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: WHO. 2001.

Ahmadi A. The principles of wheat flour fortification. Iran University of Medical Sciences. 2006.

Sadighi J, Mohammad K, Sheikholeslam R, Torabi P, Salehi F, Abdolahi Z, et al. Flour fortification with iron and folic acid in Bushehr and Golestan provinces, Iran: Program evaluation. J Sch Public Health Inst Public Health Res. 2010;7 (4):11-24.

Abdolahi Z, Pouraram H, Jahedi A. Flour fortification with in Iran. 1, editor: Andishey Mandegar; 2007.

ISIRI. Cereals and cereal products -Sampling, 1st. Edition, No.13535. 2010. Internet: http://www.isiri.gov.ir (accessed 01 June 2017).

Hashtgerd Supplementation Co. The principles of Monitoring in flour fortification. Qome: Andisheh Mandegar Publications; 2007.

AACC International. Semi-quantitative spot test for iron as ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, or electrolytic iron, Iron-Qualitative Method, AACCI Method 40-40.01. Internet: http://methods.aaccnet.org/summaries/40-40-01.aspx (accessed 01 June 2017).

AACC International. Iron spectrophotometric method, AACC method 40-41B, AACCI method 40- 41.03. Internet: http://methods.aaccnet.org/summaries/40-41-03.aspx (accessed 01 June 2017).

Lashkarboloki F, Maghsoudlou Y, Alami M, Kashaninegad M, Zahedi J. Phytic acid content in Barbari Bread fortified with Iron. 18th International Congress on Food Technology; Research Institute of Food Science and Technology - Mashhad, 2008.

KUMS. The percentage of flour fortification with iron and folic acid in Kurdistan Province in 2015. Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (KUMS); 2016; Internet: http://www.muk.ac.ir/Muk/News/Body.aspx?NewsID=5362 (accessed 09 June 2017).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trends in Wheat-Flour Fortification with Folic Acid and Iron - Worldwide, 2004 and 2007. 2008;57(01):8-10.

Kalantari N, Ghaffarpoor M, Houshyar-Rad A, Kianfar H, Bondarianzadeh D, Houshiar-Rad A. National Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of I.R. Iran, 2001-2003. Tehran: National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health; 2005.

Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc: a Report of the Panel on Micronutrients. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.

Siassi F, Mohammad K, Djazayery A, Djalili M, Abdollahi Z, Dorosty AR, et al. National Integrated Micronutrients Survey 2012 (NIMS II). Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education; 2015.

Pouraram H, Elmadfa I, Dorosty AR, Abtahi M, Neyestani TR, Sadeghian S. Long-Term Consequences of Iron-Fortified Flour Consumption in Nonanemic Men. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(2):115-21.

Published
2017-01-28
How to Cite
1.
Mirza Alizadeh A, Haj Heidary R, Tajkey J, Aminzare M, Hejazi J. Assessment of wheat flour fortification by premix (iron and folic acid) in flour factories of Zanjan province, Iran, 2016. J Nutr Sci & Diet. 3(1).
Section
Original Article(s)