Interactive effect of Saffron extracts and aerobic training on Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in men with type2 diabetes.
Aims: Type2 diabetes, is a common metabolic diseases in the world. Non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are proposed. Nutrition and exercise as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Heavy and acute exercises may increase oxidative stress, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes.
Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type2 diabetes were divided randomly into four groups including saffron extract, aerobic exercises, aerobic exercises plus saffron extract and control groups. Saffron extract with 3 mg/kg was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight- week, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end of the intervention period, levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) were measured. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA, Tukey tests and Paired t.
Results: The serum MDA decreased significantly in saffron extract and aerobic exercises plus saffron extract groups in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.001, P =0.026 respectively). Saffron extract consumption and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence on erythrocyte GPX activity (P =0.12, P =0.14 respectively). But erythrocyte GPX activity increased significantly in aerobic exercises plus saffron extract group (P =0.041).
Conclusions: Antioxidant compounds of saffron, is effective in reduction and inhibition of tissue damages after physical activities. Aerobic exercises plus saffron extract can decrease and increase levels of MDA and erythrocyte GPX activity in men with type2 diabetes, respectively.
Shapiro K, Gong WC. Natural products used for diabetes. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 2002;42(2):217-26.
Stewart K. Exercise training: can it improve cardiovascular health in patients with type 2 diabetes? British journal of sports medicine. 2004;38(3):250-2.
Hosseini SA, Gorjian M, Rasouli L, Shirali S. A Comparison between the Effect of Green Tea and Kombucha Prepared from Green Tea on the Weight of Diabetic Rats. Biosciences Biotechnology Research ASIA. 2015;20(1):141-5.
Chen Y, Serfass RC, Mackey-Bojack SM, Kelly KL, Titus JL, Apple FS. Cardiac troponin T alterations in myocardium and serum of rats after stressful, prolonged intense exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000;88(5):1749-55.
İnal ME, Kanbak G, Sunal E. Antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde levels related to aging. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2001;305(1):75-80.
Ahmed FN, Naqvi FN, Shafiq F. Lipid peroxidation and serum antioxidant enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006;1084(1):481-9.
Kanakis CD, Tarantilis PA, Tajmir-Riahi HA, Polissiou MG. Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55(3):970-7.
Shirali S, Zahra Bathaie S, Nakhjavani M. Effect of Crocin on the Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile of Streptozotocin‐Induced Diabetic Rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2013;27(7):1042-7.
Verma S, Bordia A. Antioxidant property of Saffron in man. Indian journal of medical sciences. 1998;52(5):205-7.
Hosseinzadeh H, Modaghegh MH, Saffari Z. Crocus sativus L.(Saffron) extract and its active constituents (crocin and safranal) on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009;6(3):343-50.
Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia HR. Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005, 8(3):390-94.
Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia HR, Ziaee T, Danaee A. Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8(3):387-93.
Haghighi a, darijani a, hamedinia m. The effect of one bout of exhaustive aerobic exercise with different intensities on serum mda in male smokers. 2011.
Mohammad R, Daryoush M, Ali R, Yousef D, Mehrdad N. Attenuation of oxidative stress of hepatic tissue by ethanolic extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2011;5(19):2166-73.
H SS. Extracts of medicinal plants and extraction of active ingredients and methods Identify and evaluate them. Mani; 1992. p 6-14.
Yoshioka T, Kawada K, Shimada T, Mori M. Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against activated-oxygen toxicity in the blood. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 1979;135(3):372-6.
Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 1967;70(1):158-69.
Altinzo E, Oner Z, Elbe H, Vardi N. Neuro-protective effects of Crocin on brain and cerebellum tissues in diabetic rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2014;11(6):33-9.
Peeri M, Haghighat M M, Azarbayjani A. The effect of saffron and aerobic training on hepatic concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Journal of Research in the Life Sciences Sport.2012;(2):5-16.
Kakkar R, Mantha SV, Radhi J, Prasad K, Kalra J. Increased oxidative stress in rat liver and pancreas during progression of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Clinical Science. 1998;94(6):623-32.
Bathaie S, Mokarizade N, Shirali S. An overview of the mechanisms of plant ingredients in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2012;4(44):1-24.
Afzalpour ME, Ghasemi E, Zarban A. Effects of an Intensive Resistance Training Session and Green Tea Supplementation on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol in Non-Athlete Women. Journal of Zahedan Research in Medical Sciences. 2014;16(3):59-63.
Sharifi G, Najafabadi AB, Ghashghaei FE. Oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in handball players. Advanced biomedical research. 2014;3.
Mohamadi M, Salehi I, FarajNia S. The effects of swimming exercise on oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic male rats. Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2008;30(2):111-8.
Kalkhoran J, Shibak A. The combined effect of saffron and aerobic training on some indices of hepatic oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Sport Biosciences. 2013;5(4) :1-19.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.