Adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast and endometrial Cancers: a systematic review
Breast and endometrial cancer (EC) is the most prevalent cancers among women all over the world and Breast cancer (BC) is rated as the first cause of mortality among other cancers in women. Major known risk factors for breast and endometrial cancers are obesity, low physical activity, and unhealthy and poor quality diet that contribute to about 30-35% of cancer incidence. Recent evidence support that adherence to a healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reduced risk of all types of cancers including breast and endometrial. Data of the current review were identified through a systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases and also selected articles references by using the following search terms/keywords: “Mediterranean diet”, “Mediterranean dietary pattern”, breast, mammary, endometrial, cancer, carcinoma, and neoplasm. Through the review process, eight case-controls, four cohorts, and one clinical trial were identified. Included studies were conducted among post and pre-menopausal women in the United States of America, and some European countries. The review suggests the protective role of the Mediterranean diet against BC risk in both pre and post-menopausal stage. According to the fact that there were insufficient researches on the association between MD pattern and endometrial cancer risk, its protective effect cannot be interpreted with certainty. Further studies in this area especially interventional studies are needed to determine the causality.
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