Dietary fatty acid composition and metabolic syndrome: a review
AbstractDiet as a part of lifestyle plays a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Fatty acid composition as a part of dietary intake affects blood fatty acid concentrations, insulin sensitivity and different metabolic pathways associated with the occurrence and consequences of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. A search was conducted through PubMed, Google scholar and Science Direct using keywords including metabolic syndrome, MetS, diet, fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega3, omega6 and fish oil, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, obesity and blood glucose. We included English articles published from 1995 to 2014. Based on the results of the studies reviewed, intake of saturated fatty acids by increasing LDL-C, total cholesterol and oxidized LDL and arterial stiffness was associated with increased insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. In contrast, supplements containing omega-3 and monounsaturated fatty acids such as fish and rapeseed oil can reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome and its consequences risk factors by lowering triglycerides, cholesterol, inflammation and oxidative stress. Low intake of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids with increased intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be useful in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and its consequences.
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