Journal of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics 2015. 1(1):9-20.

Contribution of body composition and activity behaviors to variation of total energy expenditure in pre-school children
Kurosh Djafarian, John R-Speakman, Joanne Stewart, Diane M-Jackson

Abstract


Background: Although it is widely accepted that the pre-school age is a critical period  in  the  development of  obesity,  there  are  few  published data  on  factors contributing to variation of total energy expenditure in this age group.To investigate the contribution of body composition, gender and activity on total energy expenditure (TEE) in pre-school children.

Methods: The total energy expenditure of 89 children (2-6 years old) was measured using  the doubly  labelled  water  (DLW)  technique.  Total  and  regional  body composition were also measured using deuterium dilution and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) respectively. Physical activity and sleep patterns were evaluated using an accelerometer. Principal components analysis (PCA) were performed on regional fat mass (FM), regional fat free mass (FFM) and behavioural variables (activity, inactivity and sleep patterns), to generate orthogonal predictors for regression analyses.

Results: No significant difference was found between boys and girls for, log weight, height, BMI sds, total FFM and log FM measured by DXA and total FFM and log obtained with deuterium dilution. No significant gender difference was found for regional traits of FFM and FM except for trunk’ FFM (p=0.02) and legs’ FFM (p=0.04), which were higher in boys.  FFM and FM measured by DXA explained 70.9% of the variation in TEE, and TEE was significantly lower amongst girls after adjustments for body composition were made (p<0.01). The first component of FFM (PC1-FFM), FM (PC1-FM) and behavioural variables (PC1-BV) were positively (p<0.01) related to TEE and there was a significant negative relationship with PC2- FM (p<0.05) and PC4-BV (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Most variation in TEE in this group was explained by difference in FFM and FM. Behavioural factors, particularly time spent in high activities could make an additional contribution of 20.9% in variation of free-living TEE. More research is needed to confirm these findings in other population.


Keywords


Energy metabolism; Childhood obesity; Physical activity; Activity monitor; Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

Full Text:

PDF

References


Poskitt EME. Obesity: Childhood Obesity. In:Caballero B, editor. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd Edition). Waltham: Academic Press;2013. p. 336-42.

Yu Z, Han S, Chu J, Xu Z, Zhu C, Guo X. Trends in Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in China from 1981 to 2010: A Meta- Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(12):e51949.

Flatt JP. Importance of nutrient balance in body weight regulation. Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews.1988;4(6):571-81.

Roberts SB, Savage J, Coward WA, Chew B, Lucas A. Energy Expenditure and Intake in Infants Born to Lean and Overweight Mothers. N Engl J of Med. 1988;318(8):461-6.

Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler WC, Christin L, Freymond D, Abbott WGH, et al. Reduced Rate of Energy Expenditure as a Risk Factor for Body- Weight Gain. N Engl J Med. 1988;318(8):467-72.

Stunkard AJ, Berkowitz RI, Stallings VA, Schoeller DA. Energy intake, not energy output, is a determinant of body size in infants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69(3):524-30.

DeLany JP, Bray GA, Harsha DW, Volaufova J.Energy expenditure in African American and white boys and girls in a 2-y follow-up of the Baton Rouge Children's Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(2):268-73.

Vermorel M, Lazzer S, Bitar A, Ribeyre J, Montaurier C, Fellmann N, et al. Contributing factors and variability of energy expenditure in non-obese, obese, and post-obese adolescents. Reproduction, nutrition, development. 2005;45(2):129-42.

Sun M, Gower BA, Nagy TR, Trowbridge CA, Dezenberg C, Goran MI. Total, resting, and activity-related energy expenditures are similar in Caucasian and African-American children. The American journal of physiology. 1998; 274(2 Pt 1): E232-7.

Salbe AD, Weyer C, Harper I, Lindsay RS, Ravussin E, Tataranni PA. Assessing risk factors for obesity between childhood and adolescence: II. Energy metabolism and physical activity. Pediatrics. 2002;110(2 Pt 1):307-14.

Westerterp KR. Pattern and intensity of physical activity. Nature. 2001;410(6828):539.

Montgomery C, Reilly JJ, Jackson DM, Kelly LA, Slater C, Paton JY, et al. Relation between physical activity and energy expenditure in a representative sample of young children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(3):591-6.

Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Bellisle F, Sempe M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Patois E. Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;

(1):129-35.

Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Archives of disease in childhood. 1995;73(1):25-9.

Dietz WH. Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(5):955-9.

Reilly JJ, Jackson DM, Montgomery C, Kelly LA, Slater C, Grant S, et al. Total energy expenditure and physical activity in young Scottish children:mixed longitudinal study. Lancet. 2004;363(9404): 211-2.

Johnstone AM, Murison SD, Duncan JS, Rance KA, Speakman JR. Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(5):941-8.

Freeman JV, Cole TJ, Chinn S, Jones PR, White EM, Preece MA. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Archives of disease in childhood. 1995;73(1):17-24.

Speakman, JR. Doubly labelled water: Theory and practice. London: Chapman & Hall, London;1997.

Schoeller DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y, Acheson KJ, Baertschi P, Jequier E. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation. The American journal of physiology. 1986;250(5 Pt 2):R823-30.

Scrimgeour CM, Rollo MM, Mudambo SM, Handley LL, Prosser SJ. A simplified method for deuterium/hydrogen isotope ratio measurements on water samples of biological origin. Biological mass spectrometry. 1993;22(7):383-7.

Weir JB. New methods for calculating metabolic

rate with special reference to protein metabolism. The Journal of physiology. 1949;109(1-2):1-9.

Djafarian K, Speakman, JR. , Stewart, J, Jackson , DM. Comparison of activity levels measured by a wrist worn accelerometer and direct observation in young children. Open Journal of Pediatrics.2013;3:422-7.

Goran MI, Carpenter WH, Poehlman ET. Total energy expenditure in 4- to 6-yr-old children. The American journal of physiology. 1993;264(5 Pt 1):E706-11.

Goran MI, Nagy TR, Gower BA, Mazariegos M, Solomons N, Hood V, et al. Influence of sex, seasonality, ethnicity, and geographic location on the components of total energy expenditure in young children: implications for energy requirements. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68(3):675-82.

Butte NF, Wong WW, Hopkinson JM, Heinz CJ, Mehta NR, Smith EO. Energy requirements derived from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during the first 2 y of life. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(6):1558-69.

Goran MI, Gower BA, Nagy TR, Johnson RK.

Developmental changes in energy expenditure and physical activity in children: evidence for a decline in physical activity in girls before puberty. Pediatrics. 1998;101(5):887-91.

Carpenter WH, Fonong T, Toth MJ, Ades PA, Calles-Escandon J, Walston JD, et al. Total daily energy expenditure in free-living older African- Americans and Caucasians. The American journal of physiology. 1998;274(1 Pt 1):E96-101.

Grund A, Vollbrecht H, Frandsen W, Krause H, Siewers M, Rieckert H, et al. No effect of gender on different components of daily energy expenditure in free living prepubertal children. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2000;24(3):299-305.

Ekelund U, Sjostrom M, Yngve A, Poortvliet E, Nilsson A, Froberg K, et al. Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2001;33(2):275-81.

Garby L, Lammert O. Between-subjects variation in energy expenditure: estimation of the effect of variation in organ size. European journal of clinical nutrition. 1994;48(5):376-8.

Muller MJ, Illner K, Bosy-Westphal A, Brinkmann G, Heller M. Regional lean body mass and resting energy expenditure in non-obese adults. Eur J Nutr. 2001; 40(3):93-7.

Goran MI, Hunter G, Nagy TR, Johnson R.Physical activity related energy expenditure and fat mass in young children. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders: journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 1997;21(3):171-8.

Van Baak MA. Physical activity and energy balance. Public Health Nutr. 1999; 2(Supplement 3a): 335-9.

Obarzanek E, Schreiber GB, Crawford PB, Goldman SR, Barrier PM, Frederick MM, et al. Energy intake and physical activity in relation to indexes of body fat: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(1):15-22.

Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA: 1998;279(12):938-42.

Rennie KL, Livingstone MB, Wells JC, McGloin A, Coward WA, Prentice AM, et al. Association of physical activity with body-composition indexes in children aged 6-8 y at varied risk of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(1):13-20.

Maffeis C, Zaffanello M, Schutz Y. Relationship between physical inactivity and adiposity in prepubertal boys. The Journal of pediatrics. 1997;131(2):288-92.

Roemmich JN, Clark PA, Walter K, Patrie J, Weltman A, Rogol AD. Pubertal alterations in growth and body composition. V. Energy expenditure, adiposity, and fat distribution. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000;279(6):E1426-36.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.