Effect of tomato juice consumption on the inflammatory biomarkers of male athletes following exhaustive exercise
AbstractAbstractBackground: Intensive exercise increases inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive Protein (CRP) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Dietary antioxidants can alter this inflammatory/oxidative state. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tomato juice (and not supplement) consumption as a rich source of lycopene (a potent antioxidant) on inflammatory biomarkers of male athletes following exhaustive exercise. Methods: Thirty male university students were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group consumed 200 mL tomato juice daily (containing 50 mg of lycopene) for one week, and then performed exercise on treadmill at a speed of 18 km/hour till exhaustion. The control group consumed the same amount of water and performed the same exercise regimen. Blood samples were collected pre- and immediately post-exercise for analysis of IL-6, CRP and oxidant/antioxidant ratio. IL-6 and CRP were measured using ELISA. Oxidant /antioxidant ratio was measured by colorimetric assay. Statistical analysis was undertaken using SPSS-13.Result: In the group who consumed tomato juice, CRP levels were significantly reduced post exercise compared to pre-exercise. The levels of IL-6 and oxidant/antioxidant ratio did not change after exercise in either the tomato juice or control groups.Conclusion: Our data showed for the first time that consumption of tomato juice, which is a main source of the antioxidant lycopene, can lead to a decrease in systemic inflammation post-exercise. This may provide a useful approach for protecting against inflammation-induced muscle damage and improving exercise performance in athletes. Keywords: Lycopene; Inflammatory bio-marker; Tomato juice; Exhaustive exercise
Plunkett BA, Callister R, Watson TA, Garg ML. Dietary antioxidant restriction affects the inflammatory response in athletes. Br J Nutr. 2010 Apr;103(8):1179-84. PubMed PMID: 20003624. Epub 2009/12/17. eng.
Jacob RA, Burri BJ. Oxidative damage and defense. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jun;63(6):985S-90S. PubMed PMID: 8644698. Epub 1996/06/01. eng.
Chew BP, Park JS. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):257S-61S. PubMed PMID: 14704330. Epub 2004/01/06. eng.
Sprenger H, Jacobs C, Nain M, Gressner AM, Prinz H, Wesemann W, et al. Enhanced release of cytokines, interleukin-2 receptors, and neopterin after long-distance running. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 May;63(2):188-95. PubMed PMID: 1611721. Epub 1992/05/01. eng.
Ullum H, Haahr PM, Diamant M, Palmo J, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Pedersen B. Bicycle exercise enhances plasma IL-6 but does not change IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha pre-mRNA in BMNC. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994;77(1):93-7.
Drenth JP, Van Uum SH, Van Deuren M, Pesman GJ, Van der Ven-Jongekrijg J, Van der Meer JW. Endurance run increases circulating IL-6 and IL-1ra but downregulates ex vivo TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1995 Nov;79(5):1497-503. PubMed PMID: 8594005. Epub 1995/11/01. eng.
Nehlsen-Cannarella S, Fagoaga O, Nieman D, Henson D, Butterworth D, Schmitt R, et al. Carbohydrate and the cytokine response to 2.5 h of running. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1997;82(5):1662-7.
Castell L, Poortmans J, Leclercq R, Brasseur M, Duchateau J, Newsholme E. Some aspects of the acute phase response after a marathon race, and the effects of glutamine supplementation. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1996;75(1):47-53.
Rohde T, MAcLEAN DA, Richter EA, Kiens B, Pedersen BK. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism. 1997;273(1):E85-E91.
Hellsten Y, Frandsen U, Orthenblad N, Sjødin B, Richter E. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise: a role in inflammation. The Journal of physiology. 1997;498(Pt 1):239-48.
Bruunsgaard H, Galbo H, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Johansen T, MacLean D, Pedersen B. Exercise-induced increase in serum interleukin-6 in humans is related to muscle damage. The Journal of physiology. 1997;499(Pt 3):833-41.
Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Zacho M, Asp S, Pedersen B. Evidence that interleukin‐6 is produced in human skeletal muscle during prolonged running. The Journal of physiology. 1998;508(3):949-53.
Dufaux B, Order U. Complement activation after prolonged exercise. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1989;179(1):45-9.
Espersen GT, Elbaek A, Ernst E, Toft E, Kaalund S, Jersild C, et al. Effect of physical exercise on cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. Apmis. 1990;98(1‐6):395-400.
Rivier A, Pene J, Chanez P, Anselme F, Caillaud C, Prefaut C, et al. Release of cytokines by blood monocytes during strenuous exercise. International journal of sports medicine. 1994;15(04):192-8.
Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P, Pedersen BK. Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. The Journal of physiology. 1999;515(1):287-91.
Brenner I, Natale V, Vasiliou P, Moldoveanu A, Shek P, Shephard R. Impact of three different types of exercise on components of the inflammatory response. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1999;80(5):452-60.
Suzuki K, Yamada M, Kurakake S, Okamura N, Yamaya K, Liu Q, et al. Circulating cytokines and hormones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after endurance exercise in humans. European journal of applied physiology. 2000;81(4):281-7.
Hirose L, Nosaka K, Newton M, Laveder A, Kano M, Peake J, et al. Changes in inflammatory mediators following eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2004;10(75-90):20.
Nieman DC, Davis J, Brown VA, Henson DA, Dumke CL, Utter AC, et al. Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on immune changes after 2 h of intensive resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004;96(4):1292-8.
Smith L, Anwar A, Fragen M, Rananto C, Johnson R, Holbert D. Cytokines and cell adhesion molecules associated with high-intensity eccentric exercise. European journal of applied physiology. 2000;82(1-2):61-7.
Malm C, Sjödin B, Sjöberg B, Lenkei R, Renström P, Lundberg IE, et al. Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running. The Journal of physiology. 2004;556(3):983-1000.
Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005;98(4):1154-62.
Toft AD, Jensen LB, Bruunsgaard H, Ibfelt T, Halkjær-Kristensen J, Febbraio M, et al. Cytokine response to eccentric exercise in young and elderly humans. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. 2002;283(1):C289-C95.
Nieman DC, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Morrow JD, Ahmed A, et al. Vitamin E and immunity after the Kona triathlon world championship. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2004;36:1328-35.
Peters E, Anderson R, Nieman D, Fickl H, Jogessar V. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. International journal of sports medicine. 2001;22(7):537-43.
Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Kurakake S, Totsuka M, Sato K, Kuriyama T, et al. Exhaustive exercise and type-1/type-2 cytokine balance with special focus on interleukin-12 p40/p70. Exercise immunology review. 2002;9:48-57.
Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Liu Q, Kurakake S, Okamura N, et al. Impact of a competitive marathon race on systemic cytokine and neutrophil responses. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2003;35(2):348-55.
Peake JM, Suzuki K, Hordern M, Wilson G, Nosaka K, Coombes JS. Plasma cytokine changes in relation to exercise intensity and muscle damage. European journal of applied physiology. 2005;95(5-6):514-21.
Britton G. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. The FASEB Journal. 1995;9(15):1551-8.
Mackinnon E, Rao A, Josse R, Rao L. Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International. 2011;22(4):1091-101.
Tyssandier V, Feillet-Coudray C, Caris-Veyrat C, Guilland J-C, Coudray C, Bureau S, et al. Effect of tomato product consumption on the plasma status of antioxidant microconstituents and on the plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2004;23(2):148-56.
Di Mascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H. Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1989;274(2):532-8.
Stahl W, Junghans A, de Boer B, Driomina ES, Briviba K, Sies H. Carotenoid mixtures protect multilamellar liposomes against oxidative damage: synergistic effects of lycopene and lutein. FEBS letters. 1998;427(2):305-8.
Saedisomeolia A, Wood LG, Garg ML, Gibson PG, Wark PA. Lycopene enrichment of cultured airway epithelial cells decreases the inflammation induced by rhinovirus infection and lipopolysaccharide. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2009;20(8):577-85.
Kim GY, Kim JH, Ahn SC, Lee HJ, Moon DO, Lee CM, et al. Lycopene suppresses the lipopolysaccharide‐induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen‐activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‐κB. Immunology. 2004;113(2):203-11.
Rousseau A-S, Hininger I, Palazzetti S, Faure H, Roussel A-M, Margaritis I. Antioxidant vitamin status in high exposure to oxidative stress in competitive athletes. British Journal of Nutrition. 2004;92(03):461-8.
Wood LG, Garg ML, Powell H, Gibson PG. Lycopene-rich treatments modify noneosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma: proof of concept. Free radical research. 2008;42(1):94-102.
Ghavipour M, Saedisomeolia A, Djalali M, Sotoudeh G, Eshraghyan MR, Malekshahi Moghadam A. Tomato juice consumption reduces systemic inflammation in overweight and obese females. Br J Nutr. 2012;15:1-5.
Polidori MC, Carrillo J-C, Verde PE, Sies H, Siegrist J, Stahl W. Plasma micronutrient status is improved after a 3-month dietary intervention with 5 daily portions of fruits and vegetables: implications for optimal antioxidant levels. Nutrition journal. 2009;8(1):10.
Alamdari DH, Paletas K, Pegiou T, Sarigianni M, Befani C, Koliakos G. A novel assay for the evaluation of the prooxidant–antioxidant balance, before and after antioxidant vitamin administration in type II diabetes patients. Clinical biochemistry. 2007;40(3):248-54.
Liu C-C, Huang C-C, Lin W-T, Hsieh C-C, Huang S-Y, Lin S-J, et al. Lycopene supplementation attenuated xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in skeletal muscle tissues of rats after exhaustive exercise. British Journal of Nutrition. 2005;94(04):595-601.
Jacob K, Periago MJ, Böhm V, Berruezo GR. Influence of lycopene and vitamin C from tomato juice on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008;99(01):137-46.
Falk B, Gorev R, Zigel L, Ben-Amotz A, Neuman I. Effect of lycopene supplementation on lung function after exercise in young athletes who complain of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction symptoms. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2005;94(4):480-5.
Bulló M, Casas-Agustench P, Amigó-Correig P, Aranceta J, Salas-Salvadó J. Inflammation, obesity and comorbidities: the role of diet. Public health nutrition. 2007;10(10A):1164-72.
Bailey DM, Lawrenson L, Mceneny J, Young IS, James PE, Jackson SK, et al. Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic evidence of exercise-induced free radical accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Free radical research. 2007;41(2):182-90.
MOFFARTS B, Kirschvink N, Art T, Pincemail J, Lekeux P. Effect of exercise on blood oxidant/antioxidant markers in standardbred horses: comparison between treadmill and race track tests. Equine Veterinary Journal. 2006;38(S36):254-7.
Sen CK. Oxidants and antioxidants in exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1995;79(3):675-86.
Sen CK. Antioxidants in exercise nutrition. Sports Medicine. 2001;31(13):891-908.
SchiØtz Thorud HM, Wisløff U, Lunde P, Christensen G, Ellingsen Ø. Surgical manipulation, but not moderate exercise, is associated with increased cytokine mRNA expression in the rat soleus muscle. Acta physiologica scandinavica. 2002;175(3):219-26.
Markovitch D, Tyrrell RM, Thompson D. Acute moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged men has neither an anti-nor proinflammatory effect. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2008;105(1):260-5.
Papassotiriou I, Alexiou V, Tsironi M, Skenderi K, Spanos A, Falagas M. Severe aseptic inflammation caused by long distance running (246 km) does not increase procalcitonin. European journal of clinical investigation. 2008;38(4):276-9.
Guyton AC, Hall J. Textbook of medical physiology. 2000. WB Saunder’s Co, Philadelphia.
Taylor C, Rogers G, Goodman C, Baynes R, Bothwell T, Bezwoda W, et al. Hematologic, iron-related, and acute-phase protein responses to sustained strenuous exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1987;62(2):464-9.
Bruun JM, Helge JW, Richelsen B, Stallknecht B. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism. 2006;290(5):E961-E7.
Gauvreau G, Wood L, Sehmi R, Watson R, Dorman S, Schleimer R, et al. The effects of inhaled budesonide on circulating eosinophil progenitors and their expression of cytokines after allergen challenge in subjects with atopic asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2000;162(6):2139-44.