Body composition and basal metabolic rate in pre-school children: no sex difference
AbstractBackground: Previous studies have suggested that sex may be a factor influencing basal metabolic rate (BMR) in adults and school age children. However, few data are available about the effects of sex on BMR in pre-school children. In the present study, we investigated whether sex differences contribute to variations in BMR in pre-school age children.Methods: Measurements were made on thirty children aged 2-6 years (14 male and 16 female). Measurements were taken of height, age, weight, and total body composition, which was determined using both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and deuterium dilution. The DXA was also used to determine body composition in different regions of the body. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry.Results: We found no significant sex differences with respect to age (F = 0, p = 0.998), weight (F = 0.02, p = 0.884), height (F = 0.33, p = 0.570), and body mass index standard deviation score (F = 0.51, p = 0.480). In addition, no significant difference was found between boys and girls for total fat free mass (FFM) (F = 1.30, p = 0.265) and fat mass (FM) (F = 3.16, p = 0.090) measured by DXA, and total FFM (F = 0.79, p = 0.380) and FM (F = 3.38, p = 0.080) obtained by deuterium dilution. There was no significant difference between pre-school boys and girls for BMR (F = 0.16, p = 0.690). In a multiple regression analysis, only log weight was significantly associated to BMR. The explain variation was 75.3%.Conclusion: In conclusions we found no significant differences in body composition between pre-school boys and girls and no sex effect on BMR in this age group.
Goran MI, Kaskoun M, Johnson R. Determinants of resting energy expenditure in young children. J Pediatr. 1994; 125(3): 362-7.
Spadano JL, Bandini LG, Must A, Dallal GE, Dietz WH. Longitudinal changes in energy expenditure in girls from late childhood through midadolescence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81(5):1102-9.
Speakman JR, Westerterp KR. Associations between energy demands, physical activity, and body composition in adult humans between 18 and 96 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92(4):826-34.
Ferraro R, Lillioja S, Fontvieille AM, Rising R, Bogardus C, Ravussin E. Lower sedentary metabolic rate in women compared with men. J Clin Invest. 1992; 90(3): 780-4.
Jackson D, Pace L, Speakman JR. The measurement of resting metabolic rate in young
children: Reproducibility and comparison with predicted values. Obesity Research. 2002; 10(1):65-8.
Ruige JB, Ballaux DP, Funahashi T, Mertens IL, Matsuzawa Y, Van Gaal LF. Resting metabolic rate is an important predictor of serum adiponectin concentrations: potential implications for obesity-related disorders. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82(1): 21-5.
Poehlman ET, Toth MJ, Ades PA, Calles- Escandon J. Gender differences in resting metabolic rate and noradrenaline kinetics in older individuals. Eur J Clin Invest. 1997; 27(1): 23-8.
van Mil EG, Westerterp KR, Kester AD, Saris WH. Energy metabolism in relation to body composition and gender in adolescents. Arch Dis Child. 2001; 85(1): 73-8.
Johnstone AM, Murison SD, Duncan JS, Rance KA, Speakman JR. Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82(5): 941-8.
Molnar D, Schutz Y. The effect of obesity, age, puberty and gender on resting metabolic rate in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 1997;156(5): 376-81.
Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Despres JP, Theriault G, Boulay MR, et al. Genetic effect in resting and exercise metabolic rates. Metabolism.1989; 38(4): 364-70.
Bogardus C, Lillioja S, Ravussin E, Abbott W, Zawadzki JK, Young A, et al. Familial dependence of the resting metabolic rate. N Engl J Med. 1986; 315(2): 96-100.
Michalakis K, Goulis DG, Vazaiou A, Mintziori G, Polymeris A, Abrahamian-Michalakis A. Obesity in the ageing man. Metabolism. 2013;62(10): 1341-9.
Bandini LG, Must A, Spadano JL, Dietz WH.Relation of body composition, parental overweight, pubertal stage, and race-ethnicity to energy expenditure among premenarcheal girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76(5): 1040-7.
DeLany JP, Bray GA, Harsha DW, Volaufova J. Energy expenditure in preadolescent African American and white boys and girls: the Baton Rouge Children's Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(4): 705-13.
Ravussin E, Burnand B, Schutz Y, Jequier E.Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate in obese, moderately obese, and control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 35(3):566-73.
Jackson DM, Pace L, Speakman JR. The measurement of resting metabolic rate in preschool children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(8): 1930-2.
Goran MI, Carpenter WH, Poehlman ET. Total energy expenditure in 4- to 6-yr-old children. Am J Physiol. 1993; 264(5 Pt 1): E706-E711.
Dietz WH. Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(5): 955-9.
Roubenoff R, Kehayias JJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Heymsfield SB. Use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in body-composition studies: not yet a "gold standard". Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58(5): 589-91.
Tothill P, Avenell A, Love J, Reid DM.Comparisons between Hologic, Lunar and Norland dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers and other techniques used for whole-body soft tissue measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994; 48(11):781-94.
Tothill P, Avenell A, Reid DM. Precision and accuracy of measurements of whole-body bone mineral: comparisons between Hologic, Lunar and Norland dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers. Br J Radiol. 1994; 67(804): 1210-7.
Ellis KJ, Abrams SA, Wong WW. Body composition of a young, multiethnic female population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65(3): 724-31.
Scrimgeour CM, Rollo MM, Mudambo SM, Handley LL, Prosser SJ. A simplified method for deuterium/hydrogen isotope ratio measurements on water samples of biological origin. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1993; 22(7): 383-7.
Pullicino E, Coward WA, Stubbs RJ, Elia M.Bedside and field methods for assessing body composition: comparison with the deuterium dilution technique. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990; 44(10):753-62.
Fomon SJ, Haschke F, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE.Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 35(5 Suppl): 1169-75.
Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child. 1995; 73(1): 25-9.
Freeman JV, Cole TJ, Chinn S, Jones PR, White EM, Preece MA. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child. 1995; 73(1): 17-24.
WEIR JB. New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol.1949; 109(1-2): 1-9.
Sun M, Gower BA, Bartolucci AA, Hunter GR, Figueroa-Colon R, Goran MI. A longitudinal study of resting energy expenditure relative to body composition during puberty in African American and white children. Am J Clin Nutr.2001; 73(2): 308-15.
Maffeis C, Schutz Y, Zoccante L, Micciolo R, Pinelli L. Meal-induced thermogenesis in lean and obese prepubertal children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 57(4): 481-5.
Klausen B, Toubro S, Astrup A. Age and sex effects on energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr.1997; 65(4): 895-907.
Grund A, Vollbrecht H, Frandsen W, Krause H, Siewers M, Rieckert H, et al. No effect of gender on different components of daily energy expenditure in free living prepubertal children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000; 24(3):299-305.
Garby L, Garrow JS, Jorgensen B, Lammert O, Madsen K, Sorensen P, et al. Relation between energy expenditure and body composition in man: specific energy expenditure in vivo of fat and fat-free tissue. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988; 42(4):301-5.
Tershakovec AM, Kuppler KM, Zemel B, Stallings VA. Age, sex, ethnicity, body composition, and resting energy expenditure of obese African American and white children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75(5):867-71.
Wren RE, Blume H, Mazariegos M, Solomons N, Alvarez JO, Goran MI. Body composition, resting metabolic rate, and energy requirements of short- and normal-stature, low-income Guatemalan children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 66(2): 406-12.
Weinsier RL, Schutz Y, Bracco D.Reexamination of the relationship of resting metabolic rate to fat-free mass and to the metabolically active components of fat-free mass in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 55(4): 790-4.
Muller MJ, Illner K, Bosy-Westphal A, Brinkmann G, Heller M. Regional lean body mass and resting energy expenditure in non-obese adults. Eur J Nutr. 2001; 40(3): 93-7.
Hayes M, Chustek M, Wang Z, Gallagher D, Heshka S, Spungen A, et al. DXA: potential for creating a metabolic map of organ-tissue resting energy expenditure components. Obes Res. 2002;10(10): 969-77.
Elia M. Energy expenditure in the whole body.In: Kinney JM, Editor. Energy metabolism: tissue determinants and cellular corollaries. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1992.
Wang Z, Heshka S, Gallagher D, Boozer CN, Kotler DP, Heymsfield SB. Resting energy expenditure-fat-free mass relationship: new insights provided by body composition modeling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 279(3): E539-E545.