Journal of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics 2016. 2(5):.

The role of dietary patterns in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in adolescents
Shahnaz Taghizadeh, Mohammad Alizadeh

Abstract


The increasing worldwide trend in childhood obesity is a driving force behind the increase in adolescent’s metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although there is no clear definition about the pediatric MetS, it is very common among adolescents which is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension, that is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD in adulthood. The etiological role of nutritional factors, especially dietary patterns, in the development of obesity and MetS is explored. Also, the evidence that pro-inflammatory stressors may prepare to obesity-induced insulin resistance is reviewed. The present article prospects the opinion that abatement of nutritional risk factors in dietary patterns and reducing the impact of metabolic and inflammatory stressors, may reduce the adverse health effects of obesity and slow the progression towards the MetS and CVD in adolescents. Evidence from pediatric dietary epidemiological and interventional studies that have investigated the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary patterns modification is limited. This review approach will further address the understanding of the interaction between dietary patterns in the pathogenesis and progression of MetS in adolescents.


References


References

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Obesity and Trends in Body Mass Index Among US Children and Adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307(5):483-90.

He F, Rodriguez-Colon S, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas A, Bixler E, Berg A, et al. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome burden in adolescents--Penn State Children Cohort study. Journal of clinical densitometry: J Clin Densitom. 2014;18(1):30-6.

Steinberger J, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Hayman L, Lustig RH, McCrindle B, et al. Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents a scientific statement from the American Heart Association atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity in the young committee of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Circulation. 2009;119(4):628-47.

Russell FD, Bürgin-Maunder CS. Distinguishing health benefits of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(11):2535-59.

Friend A, Craig L, Turner S. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children: a systematic review of the literature. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11(2):71-80.

Zimmet P, Alberti KGM, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, et al. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents–an IDF consensus report. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8(5):299-306.

Byrne CD, Wild SH. The metabolic syndrome: John Wiley & Sons; 2011:81-82

Agirbasli M, Agaoglu NB, Orak N, Caglioz H, Ocek T, Poci N, et al. Sex hormones and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2009;58(9):1256-62.

Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002;13(1):3-9.

Gadgil MD, Anderson CA, Kandula NR, Kanaya AM. Dietary patterns in Asian Indians in the United States: an analysis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(2):238-43.

Ambrosini G, Huang R-C, Mori T, Hands B, O'Sullivan T, de Klerk N, et al. Dietary patterns and markers for the metabolic syndrome in Australian adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(4):274-83.

Yu Y, Song Y. Three clustering patterns among metabolic syndrome risk factors and their associations with dietary factors in Korean adolescents: based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2007-2010. Nutr Res Pract. 2015;9(2):199-206.

Kafeshani O, Sarrafzadegan N, Nouri F, Mohammadifard N. Major dietary patterns in Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran. ARYA Atheroscler. 2015;11(Suppl 1):61.

Narasimhan S, Nagarajan L, Vaidya R, Gunasekaran G, Rajagopal G, Parthasarathy V, et al. Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected components of the metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(1):47.

Abbasi F, Okeke Q, Reaven GM. Evaluation of fasting plasma insulin concentration as an estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic individuals: comparison with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Acta Diabetol. 2014;51(2):193-7.

Glueck CJ, Wang P, Woo JG, Morrison JA, Khoury PR, Daniels SR. Adolescent and Young Adult Female Determinants of Visceral Adipose Tissue at Ages 26-28 Years. J Pediatr. 2015;166(4):936-46. e3.

Labayen I, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Huybrechts I, Rodríguez G, Jiménez-Pavón D, et al. High fat diets are associated with higher abdominal adiposity regardless of physical activity in adolescents; the HELENA study. Clin Nutr. 2014;33(5):859-66.

Aeberli I, Molinari L, Spinas G, Lehmann R, l'Allemand D, Zimmermann MB. Dietary intakes of fat and antioxidant vitamins are predictors of subclinical inflammation in overweight Swiss children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(4):748-55.

Sasaki A, De Vega W, Sivanathan S, St-Cyr S, McGowan P. Maternal high-fat diet alters anxiety behavior and glucocorticoid signaling in adolescent offspring. Neuroscience. 2014;272:92-101.

Carlson JJ, Eisenmann JC, Norman GJ, Ortiz KA, Young PC. Dietary Fiber and Nutrient Density Are Inversely Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in US Adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2011;11(111):1688-95.

McGuire S. Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Washington, DC: US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(1):202-4.

Godala M, Materek-Kusmierkiewicz I, Moczulski D, Rutkowski M, Szatko F, Gaszynska E, et al. (Estimation of plasma vitamin A, C and E levels in patients with metabolic syndrome). Pol Tyg Lek. 2014;36(215):320-3.

Moore BF, Clark ML, Bachand A, Reynolds SJ, Nelson TL, Peel JL. Interactions between Diet and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke on Metabolic Syndrome among Children-NHANES 2007–2010. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016:jc. 2015-477.

Dam V, Dalmeijer GW, Vermeer C, van der Schouw YT, Beulens JW. Abstract P308: The Association of Vitamin K Intake and Status With the Metabolic Syndrome: A 10 Year Follow-Up Study. Circulation. 2015;131(Suppl 1):AP308-AP.

Kim EY, Tae Hwang I, Yi KH. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2015;2015(Suppl 1):P70.

Velazquez-Lopez L, Santiago-Diaz G, Nava-Hernandez J, Munoz-Torres AV, Medina-Bravo P, Torres-Tamayo M. Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:175.

Razquin C, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Mitjavila MT, Estruch R, Marti A. A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(12):1387-93.

Babio N, Bulló M, Salas-Salvadó J. Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome: the evidence. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(9A):1607-17.

Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Zhou X, Reis JP, Loria CM, et al. A modified Mediterranean diet score is associated with a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome over 25 years among young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Br J Nutr. 2014;112(10):1654-61.

Bibiloni MM, Martınez E, Llull R, Maffiotte E, Riesco M, Llompart I, et al. Metabolic syndrome in adolescents in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;20:1e9.

Cuenca-García M, Ruiz J, Ortega F, Labayen I, Huybrechts I, Moreno L, et al. A Mediterranean diet is not enough for cardio-metabolic health: physical activity and physical fitness are major contributors in European adolescent. Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2015;8(1):26-7.

Grosso G, Galvano F. Mediterranean diet adherence in children and adolescents in southern European countries. NFS Journal. 2016;3:13-9.

Ozen AE, del Mar Bibiloni M, Murcia MA, Pons A, Tur JA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and consumption of functional foods among the Balearic Islands’ adolescent population. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(04):659-68.

Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferré M, Lee C-H, Estruch R, Clish CB, Ros E. Protective effects of the Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2016;146(4):920S-7S.

To YG. Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH. 2006.

Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER, Lin P-H, et al. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure–lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(1):80-9.

Moore TJ, Conlin PR, Ard J, Svetkey LP, Group DCR. DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is effective treatment for stage 1 isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension. 2001;38(2):155-8.

Fung T, Chiuve S, McCullough M, Rexrode K, Hu F. Adherence To A Dash-style Diet And Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease And Stroke In Women. Circulation. 2007;116(16 Supplement):II_519.

Parikh A, Lipsitz SR, Natarajan S. Association between a DASH-like diet and mortality in adults with hypertension: findings from a population-based follow-up study. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22(4):409-16.

Liese AD, Nichols M, Sun X, D'Agostino RB, Haffner SM. Adherence to the DASH Diet is inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(8):1434-6.

Azadbakht L, Surkan PJ, Esmaillzadeh A, Willett WC. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan affects C-reactive protein, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests among type 2 diabetic patients. J Nutr. 2011;141(6):1083-8.

Moore LL, Bradlee ML, Singer MR, Qureshi MM, Buendia JR, Daniels SR. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating pattern and risk of elevated blood pressure in adolescent girls. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1678-85.

Saneei P, Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Rajaei S, Esmaillzadeh A. Effects of recommendations to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet v. usual dietary advice on childhood metabolic syndrome: a randomised cross-over clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(12):2250-9.

Günther AL, Liese AD, Bell RA, Dabelea D, Lawrence JM, Rodriguez BL, et al. Association between the dietary approaches to hypertension diet and hypertension in youth with diabetes mellitus. Hypertension. 2009;53(1):6-12.

Couch SC, Saelens BE, Levin L, Dart K, Falciglia G, Daniels SR. The Efficacy of a Clinic-Based Behavioral Nutrition Intervention Emphasizing a DASH-Type Diet for Adolescents with Elevated Blood Pressure. J Pediatr. 2008;152(4):494-501.

Liese AD, Bortsov A, Günther AL, Dabelea D, Reynolds K, Standiford DA, et al. Association of DASH Diet With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Diabetes Mellitus The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Circulation. 2011:CIRCULATIONAHA. 110.955922.

Liese AD, Bortsov A, Günther AL, Dabelea D, Reynolds K, Standiford DA, et al. Association of DASH Diet With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Diabetes Mellitus The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Circulation. 2011;123(13):1410-7.

Kim JA, Kim SM, Lee JS, Oh HJ, Han JH, Song Y, et al. Dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents: 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(7):1904-5.

Naja F, Hwalla N, Itani L, Karam S, Sibai AM, Nasreddine L. A Western dietary pattern is associated with overweight and obesity in a national sample of Lebanese adolescents (13–19 years): a cross-sectional study. Br J Nutr. 2015;114(11):1909-19.

Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Azadbakht L, Hu FB, Willett WC. Dietary patterns, insulin resistance, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):910-8.

Cheng TO. Effects of fast foods, rising blood pressure and increasing serum cholesterol on cardiovascular disease in China. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(11):1676-8.

Seubsman Sa, Kelly M, Yuthapornpinit P, Sleigh A. Cultural resistance to fast‐food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand. Int J Consum Stud. 2009;33(6):669-75.

Kirkpatrick SI, Reedy J, Kahle LL, Harris JL, Ohri-Vachaspati P, Krebs-Smith SM. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(04):924-31.

Kochan Z, Karbowska J, Babicz-Zielińska E. (Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome). Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2009;64:650-8.

Nourmohammdi M, Ejtahed H-S, Mirmiran P, Hekmatdoost A. Dietary fatty acid composition and metabolic syndrome: a review. J Nutr Sci Diet . 2015;1(1):28-36.

Marlatt KL, Farbakhsh K, Dengel DR, Lytle LA. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents. Prev Med Rep. 2016;3:49-52.

Ahluwalia N, Andreeva V, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S. Dietary patterns, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab. 2013;39(2):99-110.

Ambrosini GL, Huang R-C, Mori TA, Hands BP, O'Sullivan TA, de Klerk NH, et al. Dietary patterns and markers for the metabolic syndrome in Australian adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(4):274-83.

Oddy WH, Herbison CE, Jacoby P, Ambrosini GL, O'Sullivan TA, Ayonrinde OT, et al. The Western dietary pattern is prospectively associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(5):778-85.

Kim JA, Kim SM, Lee JS, Oh HJ, Han JH, Song Y, et al. Dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(7):1904-5.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.