The effect of cigarette smoking on serum vitamin A and E concentration in men: a case-control study
Objective: Cigarette smoking is associated with changes in blood concentrations of some antioxidant vitamins. This study aimed to determine the association of cigarette smoking on serum vitamin A and E concentration in men.
Design: This was a case-control study, in which the participants were 80 male smokers and 84 male nonsmokers. Data on dietary intake, health status, smoking habits, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were obtained from two male current smoker and nonsmoker groups, aged 20to60 years.
Results: Findings of the study showed that smokers had significantly lower serum vitamin E and A concentration than nonsmokers (p=0.001 and p=0.013, respectively). However, serum vitamin E to cholesterol proportion (vit E/chol) was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, the highest circulating concentrations of vitamin E was observed for smokers who smoked less than or equal 9 cigarettes per day (p<0.03), while and the lowest vitamin E was seen in men smoke 10 to19 cigarettes and in those smoke greater than or equal 20 cigarettes per day; but not significantly.
Conclusion: The results of this study identified that cigarette smoking is associated with a lower serum vitamin E and A, however, it did not not effect on vitamin E to cholesterol proportion (vit E/chol).
Key words: cigarette smoking, vitamin E, vitamin A, antioxidants